USE  

INTERACT with FOR one's SELF:own AIMS.
UTILIZEMAKE USE OFAVAIL ONESELF OFEMPLOYWORKOPERATEWIELDPLYAPPLYMANEUVERMANIPULATEPUT TO USEPUT/PRESS INTO SERVICE
Hypernym

INTERACTACT so as to CAUSE ANOTHER TO REACT. -> ACTMOVE OR NOT MOVE CONFORMING to one's SELF:own DECIDE:decision. -> MOVECHANGE PLACE OR SITUATION. -> CHANGEEVENT involving two MOMENTS t1 and t2, such that a THING at the MOMENT t1 is DIFFERENT FROM that THING at the MOMENT t2. -> EVENTREALITY that ARISES in TIME. -> REALITYEXIST and NOT ONLY BE IMAGINED. -> EXISTBE-IN the UNIVERSE of SPACE AND TIME. -> BE INRELATION between a THING AND what that THING FILLS OR PART:partially FILLS. -> RELATIONFEATURE of TWO OR MORE THINGS TOGETHER. -> FEATUREABSTRACT OBJECT a THING is SAID to BE OR to HAVE. -> OBJECT[NO HYPERNYM.] WHAT one CAN NAME:refer to. -> PRIME -> N/A

Hyponym
  • EXHAUST USE so as to CAUSE NONE to CONTINUE to EXIST.
    • WASTE EXHAUST UNRESTRAINEDLY, LACKING A GOOD AIM.
      • EXTRAVAGANT WASTE:wasteful so as to OFTEN EXCESSIVELY USE PROPERTY OR MONEY FOR AMUSEMENT.
  • HOW USING WHAT METHOD?
    • WEAR USE as GARMENT.
      • ABUSE USE BADLY OR WICKEDLY.
        • BETRAY ABUSE SOMEONE'S TRUST SO AS TO HARM THAT PERSON
        • SPEND USE MONEY
          Old Chinese Criteria

          1. The current general word is yòng 用 (ant. fèi 廢 "give up the use of, not use").

          2. Yǐ 以 refers to the use of things as instruments for a given purpose and rarely involves the using up of resources.

          3. Shǐ 使 refers to the deployment of what one controls with no special emphasis on the purpose.

          4. Jiā 加 refers to the deployment or application of something in the course of some action.

          Modern Chinese Criteria

          使用

          應用

          利用

          採用

          施用

          運用

          動用

          行使

          役使

          使役

          使喚

          使

          rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

          • A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages ( BUCK 1988) p. 9.423

          • De differentiis ( DIFFERENTIAE I) p. 201

            FRUI, UTI

            225. Inter Frui et uti haec distinctio est. Quod fruimur quo nequaquam carere possumus; utimur quae aliquando nec semper habemus. Ac per hoc uti temporale est, frui vero aeternum.

          • Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien ( DOEDERLEIN 1840) p.

            USE

            uti refers to the permanent or lasting use of something.

            usurpare refers to a momentary single act of using.

            frui is antiquated and refers to a lasting use and enjoyment of something desirable.

          • Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum ( LANGIUS 1631) p.

            USUS

          • 論衡同義詞研究 ( LUNHENG TONGYI 2004) p. 123

          • Using Chinese Synonyms ( GRACE ZHANG 2010) p. 271

          • Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary ( TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996) p. 288

          Attributions by syntactic funtion

          • vtoN.adV : 71
          • vtoN : 52
          • vt(oN.)adV : 27
          • vtoN.postadV : 15
          • vt[0]oN.postadV : 13
          • npostVt.adV : 10
          • NPab : 6
          • vt+prep+N : 5
          • vtonpro.adV : 4
          • NPadV.postN{SUBJ} : 3
          • vt[oN.]adV:postN : 2
          • VPt(+N.)adV : 2
          • vadN : 2
          • vtoN(.adV) : 2
          • vttoN1.+prep+N2 : 1
          • vt+V1.adV2 : 1
          • vt prep N : 1
          • VPt+N.adV : 1
          • vtt(oN1.)+N2 : 1
          • vttoN1.+N2 : 1
          • vtoN.-V[0] : 1
          • VPtt(oN1.)+N2 : 1
          • vtt.+prep+N1:postN2{OBJ} : 1
          • vt(oN) : 1

          Attributions by text

          • 孟子 : 46
          • 荀子 : 33
          • 說苑 : 23
          • 百喻經 : 18
          • 呂氏春秋 : 10
          • 孝經 : 9
          • 莊子 : 7
          • 淮南子 : 7
          • 賢愚經 : 6
          • 祖堂集 : 5
          • 臨濟錄 : 5
          • 韓非子 : 4
          • 阮籍集四卷 : 4
          • 韓詩外傳 : 4
          • 禮記 : 4
          • 戰國策 : 4
          • 晏子春秋 : 3
          • 法言 : 3
          • 尚書 : 3
          • 孫子 : 3
          • 長短經 : 3
          • 論衡 : 2
          • 公孫龍子 : 2
          • 尹文子 : 2
          • 列子 : 2
          • 法集要頌經 : 2
          • 管子 : 2
          • 景德傳燈錄 : 1
          • 笑林一卷 : 1
          • 記纂淵海 : 1
          • 後漢書九十卷附續漢志三十卷 : 1
          • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
          • 楚辭 : 1
          • 文子 : 1
          • 法句經 : 1

          Words

             yǐ OC: k-lɯʔ MC: jɨ 149 Attributions

          Yǐ 以 refers to the use of things as instruments for a given purpose and rarely involves the using up of resources.

          • npostVt.adV=所以:e.g. 無以知人 "does not that by which to understand men": that whereby, that wherewith
          • vt(oN.)adVe.g. 以顯父母 "in this way make the parents illustrious": using this means> by this means> in this way; with the contextually determinate object, by use of the contextually determinate object/method (the pronominal object of the preposition is omitted)
          • vt[0]oN.postadVreflexive.己to V using (oneself)
          • vt+V1.adV2by means of V-ing
          • vtoN.adVusing as an instrument> e.g. 以卵投石 "dash a stone with an egg" by means of, with
          • vtoN.adVconcessivee.g. 以孔子之聖 "even if one has the (superb) sagacity of a Confucius": even if using> although one has and uses
          • vtoN.adVreflexive.己以己度人"using oneself to measure others" using (oneself)> with one's own things, by one's own standards
          • vtoN.postadVe.g. 道之以德 "guide them through virtue": To V by using> by means of N; with
          • vtoN(.adV)e.g. 文王以百里 "King Wen (became a great king) with one hundred leagues square": using> with (something) (perform a contextually determinate action or behaviour)
          • vtoNe.g. 不以目而以心 "not use they eyes but use the mind": make use of; make proper or meaningful use of
          • vtoNreflexive.身e.g. 以身教 "instruct through one's own person" using one's own person
          • vtonpro.adVe.g. 山以之高 "the mountains are high by virtue of it" by virtue of npro
          • vtt(oN1.)+N2ome.g. 以鞿羈 "use (the cultivation of beauty) as my bridle and reins": use something contextually determinate N1 as one's N2
          • vt[0]oN.postadVe.g. 勉主以禮義 "encourge the ruler by meanins of ritual propriety and righteousness": by means of
          • vtoNfigurativee.g. 以此規 "apply these rules": apply; implement
          • vt[oN.]adV:postNe.g. 禮以行之 "using ritual propriety to put things into practice": using the preceding N to V
          • vtoN.adVe.g. 以近知遠 "basing oneself on the near understand the distant": making intellectual use of; basing oneself on
             yòng OC: k-loŋs MC: ji̯oŋ 33 Attributions

          The current general word is yòng 用 (ant. fèi 廢 "give up the use of, not use")

          • vadNpassiveused, expended 用力 "effort expended"
          • vibe useable
          • vt(oN.)adVusing the contextually determinate N to V
          • vt(oN)make use of (with contextually determinate object)
          • vt+prep+Nhave use for
          • vtoN.-V[0]use N so as to V
          • vtoN.adVusing, by the use of, making use of
          • vtoNuse (an object as an instrument); use to one's benefit; apply
          • vtoNfigurativeuse (advice etc.) so as to act in accordance with it > follow
          • vtoNpassivebe used; be employed/manifested; be put to use, be put into practice; be used up
          • vtoNpsychmake use of (oneself)
          • vtoNreflexive.自use one's own resources/oneself; deploy one's own person
          • vtoNstativehave use for
          • vttoN1.+prep+N2use N1 on N2; apply N1 to N2
          用處   yòng chù OC: k-loŋs qhljas MC: ji̯oŋ tɕhi̯ɤ 6 Attributions
          • NPabuse, function (> activity), advantage
             jiā OC: kraal MC: kɣɛ 4 Attributions

          Jiā 加 refers to the deployment or application of something in the course of some action.

          • vtt.+prep+N1:postN2{OBJ}preposed objectapply N2 to N1 賞不加於無功
          • vtt(oN1.)+N2use something contextually determinate N1 on or against (N2)
          • vttoN1.+N2apply (a method, course of action etc N1) (to an object N2) 加之兵
          • vttoN1.+prep+N2use (something N1) on (a goal N2) 加兵於齊 HN: 不能將加誅於子
          • vt prep Nbe brought to bear on, be put to use on
             shì OC: lʰɯɡ MC: ɕɨk 4 Attributions
          • vt+prep+Nemphasise the use of, pay special attention to the use of
          • vtoNuse; GUAN apparently: use and take along
             shī OC: lʰal MC: ɕiɛ 4 Attributions
          • nab.texercise (of power) over N; use of N (probably ad hoc nominalisation, not really lexicalised. Must be deleted in the end, but can be kept as an example of the kind of thing we do not need. C.H.)
          • vtoNdeploy, make generous use of; make practical use of (e.g. a scaling ladder); exercise; dole out; apply
          • vtoNmathematical termCHEMLA 2003: apply effectively to something else (by way of generalisation)JZ 9.3, Liu Hui 掇 comm: 將以施于諸率。故先具此術以見其源也 "(The canon) is designed to effectively apply this method to all lyu-triangles (or lyu-procedures). Therefore it first provides this procedure in order then to bring out into the open the source (from which all these lyu spring)."
             jiǎ OC: kraaʔ MC: kɣɛ 3 Attributions
          • vt+prep+Nuse (what is not one's due)
          • vtoNavail oneself of, use (what is not one's own)
             fèn OC: pɯns MC: pi̯un 3 Attributions
          • vtoNdeploy vigorously
             fú OC: bɯɡ MC: buk 3 Attributions
          • vtoNuse, deploy (weapons, armies, vehicles)
          所以   suǒ yǐ OC: sqraʔ k-lɯʔ MC: ʂi̯ɤ jɨ 3 Attributions
          • NPadV.postN{SUBJ}the means by which N V-s
             yóu OC: liw MC: jɨu 2 Attributions
          • vtoN.postadVusing (mostly negated)
          以用   yǐ yòng OC: k-lɯʔ k-loŋs MC: jɨ ji̯oŋ 2 Attributions
          • VPt(+N.)adVuse the contextually determinate N and go ahead to V
             yōng OC: k-loŋ MC: ji̯oŋ 1 Attribution
          • vtoNpsychdeploy (oneself), exert (oneself); use (one's own) energies
             tóu OC: doo MC: du 1 Attribution
          • vtoNapply, dispense (medicine etc)
             chí OC: ɡrlɯ MC: ɖɨ 1 Attribution
          • vtoN.adVusing N to V
             chēng OC: thjɯŋ MC: tɕhɨŋ 1 Attribution
          • vtoNdeploy, use (military force) 稱兵
          假借   jiǎ jiè OC: kraaʔ skjaags MC: kɣɛ tsɣɛ 1 Attribution
          • VPt(oN)use the contextually determinate object in any way
          • VPt+N.adVusing, making use of
          用為   yòng wéi OC: k-loŋs ɢʷal MC: ji̯oŋ ɦiɛ 1 Attribution
          • VPtt(oN1.)+N2use N1 as N2, make use of as
             lì OC: rids MC: li 1 Attribution
          • nabactthe use of something
          • vtoNmake use of, deploy; put into practice
             yīn OC: qin MC: ʔin 1 Attribution
          • vtoNavail oneself of
          • vtoN.adVavailing oneself of N (to V)
             shì OC: dzrɯs MC: ɖʐɨ 0 Attributions
          • vtoNcausativeCAUSE TO ENGAGE IN ACTION> deploy (horses in battle); use (one's strength); set to work (people)
             rèn OC: njɯms MC: ȵim 0 Attributions
          • vtoNmake use of
          使   shǐ OC: srɯʔ MC: ʂɨ 0 Attributions

          Shǐ 使 refers to the deployment of what one controls with no special emphasis on the purpose.

               yù OC: ŋas MC: ŋi̯ɤ 0 Attributions
            • vtoN1. (of emperors or highly elevated persons) make use of
               xíng OC: ɢraaŋ MC: ɦɣaŋ 0 Attributions
            • vtoNdeploy (arms etc)
            持用   chí yòng OC: ɡrlɯ k-loŋs MC: ɖɨ ji̯oŋ 0 Attributions
            • VPt(oN)by means of, using
            • VPt+N.adVusing N to V
               jiàng OC: skaŋs MC: tsi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
            • vtoNemploy, use
               qióng OC: ɡʷɯŋ MC: guŋ 0 Attributions
            • vtoNuse a whole lot of (should probably be vtoNm)

            Existing SW for

            Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: