ARMY  軍隊

BIG GROUP of SOLDIERS TYPICALLY CONTROLLED by a RULER OR GOVERNMENT.
ARMED FORCEMILITARY FORCELAND FORCEMILITARYSOLDIERYINFANTRYMILITIATROOPSSOLDIERS
Old Chinese Criteria

[ARCHAIC/CURRENT]

[GENERAL/SPECIFIC]

[IMPERSONAL/PERSONIFIED]

[MOBILE/STATIONARY]

[LARGE/SMALL]

1. Bīng 兵 "armed force" focusses on the weapons ready for use and may refer to any military grouping.

[GENERAL]

2. Jūn 軍 is a complete army as a unit, from Spring and Autumn times onwards, normally attached to an army camp. Complete parts of an army are always jūn 軍, rarely shī 師. Hence the expressions sān jūn 三軍, zhōng jūn 中軍, shàng jūn 上軍, xià jūn 下軍. An army is counted by the number of jūn 軍 in it, where each jūn 軍 is said to be 10 000 men, at least in the Qi system. Systems have varied in different states. For detals of the early history see the monograph by KOLB.

[IMPERSONAL], [LARGE], [OFFICIAL]

3. Shī 師 refers generally to troops a military force on a campaign, not necessarily a complete army. ZUO Ding 4.1.6 commentators quantify an armed force as consisting of 2500 men, in one exceptional context. One often speaks of 三軍之師, never of 三師之軍. One asks for troops 請/乞師, and not for jūn 軍 which would be asking for the whole army of a friendly state. The troops of another state one uses are always shī 師 (e.g. 衛人以燕師伐鄭 ), one's own troops can be described as jūn 軍 or shī 師 almost indifferently. One offers food to the enemy shī 師, not to their jūn 軍. (HF 23.27:01) There are ruì shī 銳師 "crack troops" but no ruì jūn 銳軍 "crack army". Similarly, 楚師之良. The shī 師 may be said to hear about something 師聞之, not the jūn 軍.

[GENERAL], [MOBILE], [PERSONIFIED!]

4. Lu# 旅 is an archaic word for armed forces in any combatant or non-combatant function, and in ZUO Ding 4.1.6 it is quantified to consist of 500 men, and.

[ARCHAIC], [SMALL]

5. Duì 隊 is common in Han texts for a division in the army, the size of this division could vary, but did not exceed the hundreds. SEE ALSO BATALLION

[SMALL]

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006 WARFARE 2.

師,商周軍隊的高級編制單位,以後不採用。

軍,從春秋起成為軍隊的高級編制單位。

旅,師以下編制單位,只用於商周時代。三者均可作軍隊的泛稱。

Modern Chinese Criteria

軍隊 is the current modern word for an army.

武裝部隊 is a formal bureaucratic way of referring to an army.

武裝力量 is an abstract analytic way of referring to military forces of any kind.

武裝 is a formal way of referring to military forces.

槍桿 (obs) is an old-fashioned way of referring to armed units.

武力 is a westernised way of referrring to armed forces.

行伍 (lit) is a traditionalist way of referring to army units.

部隊 "the military" is a general way of referring to the army of a country.

隊伍 refers to the troops making up an army.

人馬 is an old-fashioned way of referring to military forces.

大軍 is an honorific way of referring to the army.

三軍 is a traditional way of referring to all of the military forces of a state.

師旅 (lit) is a classical way of referring to armed forces.

軍 identifies army units.

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis, based on Cilin. 18.11.2003. CH/

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 20.15

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

ARMY

caterva refers to a limited host of troops in military formation.

cohors refers to a military formation insofar as it is under the command of a military commander.

agmen refers to an army as a solemn procession.

ARMY

exercitus refers to an army which consists of legions.

copiae refers to an armed force which consists of cohorts.

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 67

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

MILITIA

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 155

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 1.491

UNGER SACH "Sachwoerterbuch zum Alten China"

MITTLERE ARMEE

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 1388

軍,師

1. WL maintains that in terms of size ju1n 軍 is larger than shi1 師. This is misleading because shi1 師 "armed forces" is quite general and quite standardly is specified in terms to the three armies that make up a formal array of such armed forces:

ZUO Xuan 12.2.1 (597 B.C.); Ya2ng Bo2ju4n 721; Wa2ng Sho3uqia1n 521; tr. Watson 1989:86; revised tr. CH

夏六月, In summer, in the sixth month,

晉師救鄭。 the Ji4n army came to the rescue of Zhe4ng.

荀林父將中軍, Xu2n Li2nfu3 led the central army,

先縠佐之; Xia1n Gu3 assisted him.

士會將上軍, Shi4 Hui4 led the upper army,

郤克佐之; an Xi4 Ke4 assisted him.

趙朔將下軍, Zha4o Shuo4 led the lower army,

欒書佐之。 Lua2n Shu1 assisted him..

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.374

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • n(post-N) : 108
  • NP[post-N] : 65
  • n : 42
  • nm : 41
  • ncc : 39
  • NP{vadN} : 14
  • nadN : 11
  • NP{N1=N2} : 8
  • NPm : 5
  • n[post-N] : 4
  • NPadN : 4
  • NP{N1&N2} : 4
  • nadV : 3
  • n-N : 2
  • npost-N{PLACE} : 1
  • npost-N : 1
  • vi : 1
  • nab : 1
  • vtoN : 1
  • NPadV : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 232
  • 韓非子 : 52
  • 戰國策 : 11
  • 孟子 : 10
  • 論語 : 7
  • 管子 : 7
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 7
  • 史記 : 6
  • 說苑 : 6
  • 韓詩外傳 : 5
  • 禮記 : 3
  • 百喻經 : 2
  • 列子 : 1
  • 晏子春秋 : 1
  • 漢書 : 1
  • 莊子 : 1
  • 孫子 : 1
  • 呂氏春秋 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 老子 : 1

Words

   shī OC: sril MC: ʂi 123 Attributions

Shī 師 refers generally to troops a military force on a campaign, not necessarily a complete army. ZUO Ding 4.1.6 commentators quantify an armed force as consisting of 2500 men, in one exceptional context. One often speaks of 三軍之師, never of 三師之軍. One asks for troops 請/乞師, and not for jūn 軍 which would be asking for the whole army of a friendly state. The troops of another state one uses are always shī 師 (e.g. 衛人以燕師伐鄭), one's own troops can be described as jūn 軍 or shī 師 almost indifferently. One offers food to the enemy shī 師, not to their jūn 軍. (HF 23.27:01) There are ruì shī 銳師 "crack troops" but no ruì jūn 銳軍 "crack army". Similarly, 楚師之良. The shī 師 may be said to hear about something 師聞之, not the jūn 軍. [GENERAL], [MOBILE], [PERSONIFIED!]

  • n-Nan army (of so-and-so many men or of such-and-such a place)
  • n(post-N)the army of the contextually determinate N; army; OBI: military camp, encampment. Troops, armed force, division of the armed forces, regular armed forces; (obsolescent after Qin) HF 1.2: (several hundred thousand) organised armed personnel (should probably be npost-N)
  • nabautonymarmy
  • nadV師行to move with an army; to travel like marching with army ??
  • nccarmy 二師 "the two armies"
  • vtoNmarshall (an army division)
  • npost-V{NUM}army as a counted unit
  • n=Nprarmy Npr
  • ncollectivearmy; the members of the army (traditionally 2500 men)
  • n[post-N]one's (own) army, the army of the subject of the clause in which the word occurs (Note that this use is particularly common in object position: n[post-N.]post-Vt
   jūn OC: kun MC: ki̯un 48 Attributions

Jūn 軍 is a complete army as a unit, from Spring and Autumn times onwards, normally attached to an army camp. Complete parts of an army are always jūn 軍, rarely shī 師. Hence the expressions sān jūn 三軍, zhōng jūn 中軍, shàng jūn 上軍, xià jūn 下軍. An army is counted by the number of jūn 軍 in it, where each jūn 軍 is said to be 10 000 men, at least in the Qi system. Systems have varied in different states. For detals of the early history see the monograph by KOLB. [IMPERSONAL], [LARGE], [OFFICIAL]

  • nadNmilitary (law, equipment) 軍志 "military records"
  • nccfrom Qin times onwards: regular army; overall armed forces (could consist of up to a million men) 一軍
  • viactform an army
  • n[post-N](one's) army
  • npost-Nthe armed forces of N; the army of N
   bīng OC: praŋ MC: pɣaŋ 39 Attributions

Bīng 兵 "armed force" focusses on the weapons ready for use and may refer to any military grouping. [GENERAL]

  • nmtroops, armed forces; military support; military force
  • npost-N{PLACE}army of N
中軍   zhōng jūn OC: krluŋ kun MC: ʈuŋ ki̯un 26 Attributions
  • NPCentral Army (often commandeered by the ruler or the duke); Central Army Command
三軍   sān jūn OC: saam kun MC: sɑm ki̯un 14 Attributions
  • NP{vadN}the combined military forces of a state
上軍   shàng jūn OC: ɡljaŋs kun MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ ki̯un 13 Attributions
  • NPUpper Army
下軍   xià jūn OC: ɢraaʔ kun MC: ɦɣɛ ki̯un 12 Attributions
  • NPLower Army; Rear Army
軍旅   jūn lǚ OC: kun raʔ MC: ki̯un li̯ɤ 12 Attributions
  • NP{N1=N2}actmilitary pursuits; military affairs in general; the conduct of military work
  • NPpluralthe troops
  • NPadNmilitary
  • NPadVin the army
   róng OC: njuŋ MC: ȵuŋ 8 Attributions
  • nadNmilitary, pertaining to warfare
  • nmmilitary force
  • nadVin the military manner (dressing up etc); in military style
   zhòng OC: tjuŋs MC: tɕuŋ 8 Attributions
  • npluralOBI: hosts; numerous armed forces; the numerous armes forces; also: armed forces of an individual household
   lǚ OC: raʔ MC: li̯ɤ 7 Attributions

Lu# 旅 is an archaic word for armed forces in any combatant or non-combatant function, and in ZUO Ding 4.1.6 it is quantified to consist of 500 men, and . [ARCHAIC], [SMALL]

  • narmed forces; army (of 500 soldiers?)
   jù OC: ɡaʔ MC: gi̯ɤ 5 Attributions
  • nvan; part of a battle formation
   háng OC: ɢaaŋ MC: ɦɑŋ 5 Attributions
  • ndivision in an army of Jìn, one on the right, one on the left, one in the middle
   zú OC: skuud MC: tsuot 4 Attributions
  • nbatallion of 100 men; personal troops (of king)
兵革   bīng gé OC: praŋ krɯɯɡ MC: pɣaŋ kɣɛk 4 Attributions
  • NP{N1&N2}armed forces
師旅   shī lǚ OC: sril raʔ MC: ʂi li̯ɤ 4 Attributions
  • NP{N1=N2}pluralarmed forces, armies
   yòu OC: ɢʷɯʔ MC: ɦɨu 3 Attributions
  • nright wing of an army; Army of the Right
   duì OC: ɡ-luuls MC: duo̝i 3 Attributions

Duì 隊 is common in Han texts and refers to a division in the army, the size of this division could vary, but did not exceed the hundreds. [SMALL]

  • nregular military formation; group within an army
甲兵   jiǎ bīng OC: kraab praŋ MC: kɣap pɣaŋ 3 Attributions
  • NPmarmoured soldiers, army
   zuǒ OC: skaalʔ MC: tsɑ 2 Attributions
  • nleft wing of an army; Army of the Left
兵刃   bīng rèn OC: praŋ njins MC: pɣaŋ ȵin 2 Attributions
  • NPmcollectivearmed force, army in general
左師   zuǒ shī OC: skaalʔ sril MC: tsɑ ʂi 2 Attributions
  • NPLeft Army
簡師   jiǎn shī OC: kreenʔ sril MC: kɣɛn ʂi 2 Attributions
  • NParmy of chosen crack troops
兵戎   bīng róng OC: praŋ njuŋ MC: pɣaŋ ȵuŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPnonreferentialarmed forces
卒伍   zú wǔ OC: skuud ŋaaʔ MC: tsuot ŋuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • NPordinary army unit; rank and file
右師   yòu shī OC: ɢʷɯʔ sril MC: ɦɨu ʂi 1 Attribution
  • NPRight Army
軍師   jūn shī OC: kun sril MC: ki̯un ʂi 1 Attribution
  • NParmy
軍眾   jūn zhòng OC: kun tjuŋs MC: ki̯un tɕuŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPsoldiers of the army
軍陣   jūn zhèn OC: kun ɡrliŋs MC: ki̯un ɖin 1 Attribution
  • NParmy; army in action
師兵   shī bīng MC: srij pjaeng OC: sril praŋ 1 Attribution
  • NP[post-N]one's encamped army
   yí OC: ŋral MC: ŋiɛ 0 Attributions
  • nXUN, jundao: straight column
   chā OC: skhreeb MC: ʈʂhɣɛp 0 Attributions
  • nvanguard (of an army)
   fēng OC: phoŋ MC: phi̯oŋ 0 Attributions
  • ncollectivevanguard of a military formation
鴈 / 雁   yàn OC: ŋraans MC: ŋɣan yàn OC: ŋraans MC: ŋɣan 0 Attributions
  • nadVin a military goose formation
   qū OC: kho MC: khi̯o 0 Attributions
  • ncolumn of an army (ZUO)
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • NP[post-N]one's encamped army

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: