CAUSE  原因

SITUATION OR THING which CAUSES something TO HAPPEN OR to be TRUE.
SOURCEROOTORIGINBEGINNING(S)STARTING POINTMAINSPRINGBASEBASISFOUNDATIONFOUNTAINHEAD
Taxonoymy

BECAUSEPRETEXTKARMA

Antonymy

RESULT

See also

BEGINPASTPURPOSE

Kind Of

SITUATION

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The general word primarily for something further back in time causing something later in time, but also applied to logical grounds of any kind is gù 故, and the image is that of a solid background against which something is happening. Both subjective reasons and objective causes are referred to by this word.

2. Yīn 因 is what an animate or inanimate agent bases himself on in order to develop or act, and the image is that of leaning on it.

3. Yóu 由 and zì 自 are only occasionally nominalised and metaphorically construe the ground as something from which the consequence "flows", and the image is that of a source from which an action or a process flows.

4. Yǐ 以 is only occasionally nominalised and construes the grounds as something used by the consequence in order for it to be established, and the image is of the use a subject makes, in the course of some action, of something else.

5. Yuán 緣 is construed as grounds one uses as a guideline, and yuán 緣 always indicates grounds used by a person, and the image is of a guideline one follows in action.

6. Jī 機 is an objective cause construed metaphorically as a triggering mechanism for what is caused, and the image is of a mechanism triggering an event or an action.

Modern Chinese Criteria

原因

緣故

原故

原委

原由

緣由

因由

來由

根由

由頭

由來

來頭 refers to a subjective motive behind words or action.

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 17.42

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 480

CAUSA est id, cujus vi res est, seu, est principium, unde aliquid suum esse accipit.

Detailed analysis.

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

CAUSA

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 55

MAUTHNER WP 1924 Woerterbuch der Philosophie. Neue Beitraege zu einer Kritik der Sprache I.182

CAUSALITAS

MAUTHNER WP 1924 Woerterbuch der Philosophie. Neue Beitraege zu einer Kritik der Sprache I.401

ENDURSACHEN

MAUTHNER WP 1924 Woerterbuch der Philosophie. Neue Beitraege zu einer Kritik der Sprache III.333

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 1.1317

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 11.377

ZHANG DAINIAN 2002 Key Concepts in Chinese Philosophy 276

BORCHERT 2005 The Encyclopedia of Philosophy

CAUSE, AITIA, CAUSATION

BAECHTHOLD-STAEUBLI 1987 Handwörterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens 1.649

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no 100

DIVISIONES 1906 Divisiones quae vulgo dicuntur Aristoteleae no. 18

HOROWITZ 2005 New Dictiornary of the History of Ideas, 6 vols.

CAUSATION

CAUSATION IN EAST ASIAN AND SOUTH EAST ASIAN PHILOSOPHY

CAUSALITY

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 55A

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • nab : 59
  • NPab : 20
  • NPpro-V : 10
  • npost-N : 9
  • NPpost-N : 6
  • NPab.post-N : 4
  • NP-V : 4
  • vtoN : 4
  • NPadV.postN{SUBJ} : 3
  • vttoN.+V[0] : 3
  • npro+V.postN : 3
  • VP V : 2
  • vt+V[0] : 2
  • NP[adN] : 2
  • nab.post-N : 1
  • VPt+V[0] : 1
  • NP{PRED.}post-N : 1
  • vt+prep+N : 1
  • vtoN1.adN2 : 1
  • vtoNab : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 15
  • 說苑 : 15
  • 賢愚經 : 14
  • 春秋左傳 : 12
  • 呂氏春秋 : 11
  • 莊子 : 8
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 7
  • 祖堂集 : 6
  • 史記 : 5
  • 臨濟錄 : 5
  • 管子 : 4
  • 淮南子 : 4
  • 六祖壇經 : 4
  • 荀子 : 3
  • 百喻經 : 3
  • 韓詩外傳 : 3
  • 禮記 : 2
  • 戰國策 : 2
  • 法句經 : 2
  • 全上古三代秦漢三國六朝文 : 1
  • 晏子春秋 : 1
  • 漢書 : 1
  • 太平經 : 1
  • 文選 : 1
  • 列子 : 1
  • 鹽鐵論 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 孟子 : 1
  • 法言 : 1
  • 華陽國志十三卷 : 1
  • 新序 : 1

Words

   gù OC: kaas MC: kuo̝ 21 Attributions

The general word primarily for something further back in time causing something later in time, but also applied to logical grounds of any kind is gù 故, and the image is that of a solid background against which something is happening. Both subjective reasons and objective causes are referred to by this word.

  • nabmetaphysicalprecedent, antecedent; what is behind something, background, cause; reasons behind; basic features SHUOWEN: 使為之也。
  • npost-Nthe reason N [should perhaps be npost=N]
  • npost-NN=situationreason for N
所以   suǒ yǐ OC: sqraʔ k-lɯʔ MC: ʂi̯ɤ jɨ 19 Attributions
  • NPpro-Vmetaphysicalcause, the reason why something happened; the reason behind things
  • NPab.post-Nreason for N, cause of N
  • NPadV.postN{SUBJ}the reason why N V-s
  • NP-Vthe agential cause of V
  • NPpro-Vnaturalnatural cause of V occurring
  • NPpro-Vsubjectivethe subjective reason for the explicit or implicit subject doing V
   jī OC: kɯl MC: kɨi 18 Attributions

Jī 機 is an objective cause construed metaphorically as a triggering mechanism for what is caused, and the image is of a mechanism triggering an event or an action.

  • nabmetaphysicalcausal mechanism; crucial mechanism; underlying mechanism
因緣   yīn yuán OC: qin k-lon MC: ʔin jiɛn 18 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: primary and subsidiary causes> cause, reason (determining one's life etc); causal link
  • NPpost-Nreason for N; karmic background
   yǐ OC: k-lɯʔ MC: jɨ 11 Attributions

Yǐ 以 is only occasionally nominalised and construes the grounds as something used by the consequence in order for it to be established, and the image is of the use a subject makes, in the course of some action, of something else.

  • nabmetaphysicale.g. 必有以也 "there must be a reason": reason, grounds
   yuàn OC: k-lons MC: jiɛn 7 Attributions

Yuán 緣 is construed as grounds one uses as a guideline, and yuán 緣 always indicates grounds used by a person, and the image is of a guideline one follows in action.

  • nabmetaphysicalconcrete basis, something to go by, lead; reason; plausible reason; more generally: circumstancesin the BUDDH context secondary causes, conditions as opposed to primary causes yin1 因; skr. hetu
   wéi OC: ɢʷal MC: ɦiɛ 5 Attributions
  • nabpsychreason
  • vt+V[0]perfectivebring it about that V;
  • vttoN.+V[0]bring it about that S (cf HYDCD sub verbo no. 29: 使,致使)
   yóu OC: liw MC: jɨu 5 Attributions

Yóu 由 and zì 自 are only occasionally nominalised and metaphorically construe the ground as something from which the consequence "flows", and the image is that of a source from which an action or a process flows.

  • nabmetaphysicalthe wherefrom of things, the source of the existence of things
  • nabpsychthe cause from which something flows
  • vtoN1.adN2caused by> by
   zì OC: sblids MC: dzi 4 Attributions

Yóu 由 and zì 自 are only occasionally nominalised and metaphorically construe the ground as something from which the consequence "flows", and the image is that of a source from which an action or a process flows.

  • nabmetaphysicalreason, source (for insight). See SINCE
  • vt+prep+Nstativebe because of the situation described in N
  • vtoNstativebe because of (this)
   yīn OC: qin MC: ʔin 3 Attributions

Yīn 因 is what an animate or inanimate agent bases himself on in order to develop or act, and the image is that of leaning on it.

  • nabmetaphysicalcause
   suǒ OC: sqraʔ MC: ʂi̯ɤ 3 Attributions
  • npro+V.postNthe reason why, that through which =所以
有緣   yǒu yuán OC: ɢʷɯʔ k-lon MC: ɦɨu jiɛn 2 Attributions
  • NP[adN]BUDDH: that which has a cause/that which is conditioned > the conditioned, conditioned entities; cause; > conditioned acts
生緣   shēng yuán OC: sraaŋ k-lon MC: ʂɣaŋ jiɛn 2 Attributions
  • NPabmetaphysicalproductive cause
所以者   suǒ yǐ zhě OC: sqraʔ k-lɯʔ kljaʔ MC: ʂi̯ɤ jɨ tɕɣɛ 2 Attributions
  • NPabmetaphysicalthe reason
有以   yǒu yǐ MC: hjuwX yiX OC: ɢʷɯʔ k-lɯʔ 2 Attributions
  • VP Vhave reason/occasion to V
所以然者   suǒ yǐ rán zhě MC: srjoX yiX nyen tsyaeX OC: sqraʔ k-lɯʔ njen kljaʔ 2 Attributions
  • NPabthat by reason of which something is so: reason, cause
   yuán OC: ŋɡon MC: ŋi̯ɐn 1 Attribution
  • nabmetaphysicalbasic causes
   shǐ OC: lʰɯʔ MC: ɕɨ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcausativebe the initial cause of, originate
   shī OC: qhlji MC: ɕi 1 Attribution
  • vtoNstativebe the unwitting cause of; preside over unwittingly as the person responsible
   shī OC: lʰal MC: ɕiɛ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNabcause (pain etc) by one's actions
   zú OC: tsoɡs MC: tsi̯o 1 Attribution
  • vtoNbe a sufficient reason for
之為   zhī wéi OC: kljɯ ɢʷal MC: tɕɨ ɦiɛ 1 Attribution
  • NP{PRED.}post-Nbe the doing of; be because of N
宿緣   sù yuán OC: suɡ k-lon MC: suk jiɛn 1 Attribution
  • NPabmetaphysicalcauses from previous lives as present in the present life
無所   wú suǒ OC: ma sqraʔ MC: mi̯o ʂi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • VPt+V[0]have no reason to V
所以然   suǒ yǐ rán OC: sqraʔ k-lɯʔ njen MC: ʂi̯ɤ jɨ ȵiɛn 1 Attribution
  • NPabmetaphysicalChristian Chinese: that by virtue of which something is so> cause
  • NPabclassical Chinese: the reason
   běn OC: pɯɯnʔ MC: puo̝n 1 Attribution
  • nabmetaphysicalbasic cause, basic reason 難之本 "the basic reason for the trouble/difficulties"
   zhǔ MC: tsyuX OC: tjoʔ 1 Attribution
  • nab.post-Ndetermining cause or main factor
所由   suǒ yóu MC: srjoX yuw OC: sqraʔ liw 1 Attribution
  • NPpro-Vthe objective source and cause for there being V-ing
所自   suǒ zì MC: srjoX dzijH OC: sqraʔ sblids 1 Attribution
  • NPpro-Vthe objective cause from which the V-ing results
   qǔ OC: skhoʔ MC: tshi̯o 0 Attributions
  • vttoN1.+N2by one's choice of action bring about N1 for N2
   duō OC: k-laal MC: tɑ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNabcause much Nab
事由   shì yóu OC: dzrɯs liw MC: ɖʐɨ jɨu 0 Attributions
  • NPabmetaphysicalreason
業緣   yè yuán OC: ŋab k-lon MC: ŋi̯ɐp jiɛn 0 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: karmic conditions (SOOTHILL: 404: "karma-cause, karma-cirmumstance, condition, resulting from karma.")
緣故   yuán gù OC: k-lon kaas MC: jiɛn kuo̝ 0 Attributions
  • NPabcause, reason
致令   zhì lìng OC: k-liɡs ɡ-reŋ MC: ʈi liɛŋ 0 Attributions
  • VPtt(oN.)+V[0]cause the contextually determinate N to V
   nòng OC: ɡ-rooŋs MC: luŋ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNcause; bring about;
   qiú OC: ɡu MC: gɨu 0 Attributions
  • vtoNbe the cause of, "ask for"
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • VP Vhave reason/occasion to V

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: