BE IN  

RELATION between a THING AND what that THING FILLS OR PART:partially FILLS.
PRESENTINAT
Old Chinese Criteria

[GRAMMATICALISED/LEXICAL]

1. The general word is zài 在 (ant. wáng 亡 "be not present, be absent") which refers to any presence of anything in anything.

[GENERAL]

2. Chù 處 is often non-literally spatial and refers to occupancy of a well-defined place in society, but has a wide range of associated meanings and is very common.

[ABSTRACT!]

3. Yú 於 is grammaticalised as a preposition but can come to function as a main verb "be in", and this verbal use may perhaps be taken to be etymologically primary.

[GRAMMATICALISED]

4. Jū 居 is orginally "to dwell at home" and sometimes comes to mean more generally "be in". See BE AT HOME

[MARGINAL]; [[RARE]]

5. Lu# 履 "tread on" occasionally refers to being in a certain position.

[ABSTRACT], [ELEVATED]; [[RARE]]

Modern Chinese Criteria

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

BE IN

adesse is to be near to something.

interesse refers to participatory presence.

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 122

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.450.407

DANS.EN

WANG FENGYANG 1993 古辭辨 Gu ci bian 466

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 173
  • vt[0]oN.postadV : 76
  • vtoN.adV : 32
  • vt+prep+N : 22
  • vt[0]oN.adV : 10
  • vtoN : 9
  • vtoN.postadV : 7
  • vt(oN) : 6
  • vt0oN : 4
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2 : 3
  • vt+N.postvt'+N:postV : 2
  • vt0+N1.postadN2 : 1
  • vt[oN] : 1
  • vtoN.+V : 1
  • vt+prep+N1.postadN2 : 1
  • vtoN.adS : 1
  • vt0oN.adS : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 33
  • 韓非子 : 32
  • 論語 : 31
  • 說苑 : 29
  • 荀子 : 28
  • 孟子 : 25
  • 禮記 : 19
  • 孝經 : 16
  • 呂氏春秋 : 14
  • 百喻經 : 13
  • 祖堂集 : 12
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 9
  • 臨濟錄 : 9
  • 管子 : 8
  • 史記 : 7
  • 莊子 : 7
  • 晏子春秋 : 6
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 6
  • 賢愚經 : 6
  • 毛詩 : 6
  • 戰國策 : 5
  • 楚辭 : 4
  • 列子 : 3
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 3
  • 論衡 : 2
  • 周易 : 2
  • 法言 : 2
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 2
  • 韓詩外傳 : 2
  • 六祖壇經 : 2
  • 春秋繁露 : 2
  • 法集要頌經 : 1
  • 法句經 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1
  • 公孫龍子 : 1
  • 新序 : 1

Words

在 / 才   zài OC: sɡɯɯʔ MC: dzəi cái OC: sɡɯɯ MC: dzəi 157 Attributions

The general word is zài 在 (ant. wáng 亡"be not present, be absent") which refers to any presence of anything in anything. [GENERAL] The general word is zài 在 (ant. wáng 亡"be not present, be absent") which refers to any presence of anything in anything. [GENERAL]

  • vt(oN)be in the contextually determinate place > be inside, be there; be present
  • vt[0]oN.postadVN=timeduring, at (a time)
  • vt[0]oN.postadVN=placein, into
  • vt+prep+Nliterally: be in the place N
  • vt+prep+Nabstractconsist in
  • vt+prep+N1.postadN2in
  • vt0oN.adStemporalOBI 3: at (a certain time), during (a certain period)
  • vt0oNfigurativethe point is in; the abstract thing resides in
  • vtoN.adVplacein; at
  • vtoN.postadVin; at
  • vtoNbe in the place N
  • vtoNfigurativebe in; hold (an office etc.)
  • vtoNabstract(abstractly:) be present in (a person); consist in; belong to; reside in
  • vtoNimperativekeep in the place N!
  • vtoNspacebe in (a certain place)
  • vtoN.adVfigurativein; at
  • vt+NN=timehappen at the time N; be cone at the time N
  • vt prep Nfigurativefiguratively dwell in, live in, be immersed in
  • vtoNfigurativebe concerned with
  • vtoNfigurativeabstract: consist in
  • vt prep Nfigurativereside in; consist in
  • vtoNbe visibly present in
   yú OC: qa MC: ʔi̯ɤ 93 Attributions

Yú 於 is grammaticalised as a preposition but can come to function as a main verb "be in", and this verbal use may perhaps be taken to be etymologically primary. [GRAMMATICALISED]

  • vt[0]oN.adVin (indicating place in front of the main verb)
  • vt[0]oN.postadVfigurativein, at, for
  • vt[0]oN.postadVliteralin; at; to; from; by
  • vt0oN.adSat the time of N S happened [See REACH, and 於是 for a large set of examples.]
  • vtoN.adSN=placeat the place N S happened: [no examples before whole sentences found so far]
  • vtoNto be in; to be at; be conducted in/at (place or time)
  • vtoNN=timebe at (a time N)
  • vtoN.adSN=timeat the time N
  • vtoN.postadVat, in, near
  • vtoN.postadVN=timeat the time N; during the period N
   chǔ OC: khljaʔ MC: tɕhi̯ɤ 27 Attributions

Chǔ 處 is often non-literally spatial and refers to occupancy of a well-defined place in society, but has a wide range of associated meanings and is very common. [ABSTRACT!]

  • vt+prep+Nfind oneself in, be in
  • vtoNfind oneself in (a condition, at a time); occupy (a position or an office)
  • vt[oN]be in a place
   yú OC: ɢʷra MC: ɦi̯o 19 Attributions
  • vt[0]oN.postadVOBI 3: in, at, on, by; referring to the future in this construction
  • vt+N.postvt'+N:postVtwo prepositional phrasesat (a place)
  • vtoN.+V(to V) in N
  • vt0+N.adStimeV at the time N
  • vt0+N1.postadN2be in
  • vt[0]oN.postadVin
   jū OC: ka MC: ki̯ɤ 17 Attributions

Jū 居 is orginally "to dwell at home" and sometimes comes to mean more generally "be in". See BE AT HOME [MARGINAL]; [[RARE]]

  • vtoNbe located in; occupy (a space, or a space of time, or a part)
  • vtoNfigurativebe in and fill (a social position) be in (a situation)
  • vtoNmathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
  • vtoNcausativecause to be in: put in the place N
   hū OC: ɢaa MC: ɦuo̝ 10 Attributions
  • vt[0]oN.postadVin; till
   xiàng OC: qhaŋs MC: hi̯ɐŋ 9 Attributions
  • vtoN.adVlocative coverb: in, at, on (this is a special usage of 向 in vernacular texts of the Tang and Song periods; there are only few examples dating from the Six Dynasties period but this function became quite common during the Tang; during the Ming locative xiàng gradually became obsolete) In Song texts typically appearing in the construction 向 N 中 "in N"
   cún OC: sɡɯɯn MC: dzuo̝n 7 Attributions
  • vt+prep+Nexist in; persist in
  • vtoNfigurativereside in; be directed towards; be preoccupied by
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2cause N1 to exist in N2
   ān OC: qaan MC: ʔɑn 4 Attributions
  • vtoNbe in (a place or position), remain undisturbed in (a place), thrive in (a location) (of plants etc) 安其處 "thrive in one's place"
   dāng OC: taaŋ MC: tɑŋ 4 Attributions
  • vtoN.adVon, at
   lǚ OC: riʔ MC: li 1 Attribution

Lǘ 履 "tread on" occasionally refers to being in a certain position. [ABSTRACT], [ELEVATED]; [[RARE]]

  • vtoNoccupy (a position) 履位 "occupy a rank"
   zhuó OC: k-laɡ MC: ʈi̯ɐk 1 Attribution
  • vt0oN{SUBJ}lie
  • vtoNstativelie in the place N
   yǐ OC: k-lɯʔ MC: jɨ 1 Attribution
  • vtoN.adSe.g. 十八年 "was born in the 18th year" at the time N
   zhù OC: tos MC: ʈi̯o 0 Attributions
  • vtoNfigurativeconsist in
   jì OC: krals MC: kiɛ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNspend a little time in
   fāng OC: paŋ MC: pi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
  • vt+prep+Nhave one's metaphysical place in/among
座下   zuò xià OC: sɡools ɢraaʔ MC: dzʷɑ ɦɣɛ 0 Attributions
  • VPt0oN{SUBJ}be in attendance under the Buddhist pulprit

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: