Taxonomy of meanings for 無:

  • 無 wú (OC: ma MC: mio) 武夫切 平 廣韻:【有無也亦漢複姓二氏楚熊渠之後號無庸其後爲氏又有無鉤氏出自楚姓武夫切二十一 】
    • LACK
      • nabhavenot-having things
      • vinot exist; be lacking; be missing
      • vtoNlack, be without; make do without; imply no (harm or loss); lack the support of (subordinates)
      • vt0oNN=logical subjectthere is a lack of
      • vt(oN)be without the contextually determinate thing
      • nabstativeabsence of untoward things; clear path
      • vttoN1.+prep+N2reflexive.己lack N1 within (oneself)
      • nabplaceabsence; the place where something is absent or lacking
      • nababstractnothingness, absence of anything whatsoever
      • vtoN1.postadN2without
      • vt+V[0]V=object of Vlack an object of V > have nothing to V, have nothing that one Vs
      • vt(oN)ombe without the contextually determinate object N
      • nab.tfeaturelack > non-existence of N
      • nprono one
      • vadNthe missing N, the non-existing N, the non-extant N
      • vtoNN=support of Nlack; have lost the support of N
      • vtoN.adVwithout
      • vt0oNthere are no Ns
      • vtoNderivedlack the experience of> never encounter
      • vtoNlack the N one needs
      • vadVt(oN)there is not the contextually determinate object N of the Vt, there is no contextually determinate object N of the Vt
      • vt0oN1{SUBJ}.postN2{PLACE}there is no N1 at N2
      • vt[0]oN.adV(0){NEG}=無所 e.g. 無與慮國 "have not one to plan for the state with": lack the object of Vt in V-ing
      • grammaticalised>COPULA
          • generalised>NOT
            • padPexpected answer: no!not ? (modifying an adverbial particle)
            • vadVnegativenone of the objects
            • vadVnegativein no case; in no way; at no point, in no respect; not at all
            • vadVfutureadverbial negation concerning the future: will not
            • vadV1.postV2so that not
            • vi(0).postSquestion[is this not so?>] functions almost like question particle (compare French n'est-ce pas or German "oder nicht?")
            • vt[0]+V[0].postVnegation after "pivotal" verbs, as discussed in Lyu Shuxiang's article on 毋etc in his collected papers.
            • morally>SHOULD NOT
              • vt+V[0](GENERALLY probitive) should not in general; should never; should never again
              • injunctive=毋> DON’T
                • specifically: don't you ever>NEVER
                  • vadVwill never (in generalisations); at no time (during a certain period), never (無有 there never are any)
        • grammaticalised: pronominalised>NONE
          • npro{OBJ}+Vtnothing
          • vt+VtMERGE WITH "npro{OBJ} Vt"": no object; nothing 無所
          • npro{SUBJ} V{PRED}noone, nobody; none
          • specifically: abstract>NOTHING
            • nabmetaphysicalnothing; nothingness
          • local only>HOLE
          • specifically: importance>UNIMPORTANT
            • vt[0]+V[0].adSno matter; it does not matter
            • vt0+.S1S2:adS3no matter whether S1 or S2, S3
            • putative>NEGLECT
              • vtoNdisregard
              • vt+V1.adV2no matter how V1
              • vtoN.adVto VERB disregarding N; to VERB irrespective of N
        • grammaticalised: weak meaning>MODAL PARTICLES
          • SURNAMES
            • =蕪
            • =幠COVER
            • 無 mó (OC: maa MC: muo) 莫胡切 平 廣韻:【南无出釋典又音無 】
            • ONOMATOPOETICA