AVOID  避免

ACT so as to CAUSE ONESELF NOT to ENCOUNTER OR SUFFER something.
KEEP AWAY FROMSTAY AWAY FROMSTEER CLEAR OFGIVE A WIDE BERTH TOFIGHT SHY OF
Old Chinese Criteria

[[BASIC/DERIVED]]

[ABSTRACT/CONCRETE]

[DELIBERATE/INVOLUNTARY]

[GENERAL/SPECIFIC]

[GRAMMATICALISED/LEXICAL]

[HIGH-DEGREE/LOW-DEGREE]

1. The general word is miǎn 免 (ant. zāo 遭 "encounter"), and this refers to any voluntary or involuntary process leading to one's escape from what otherwise might occur, especially one's being spared a negative experience.

[CONCRETE], [GENERAL]

2. Bì 避 (ant. mào 冒 "expose oneself to"), unlike miǎn 免, is always deliberate and describes a strategy of action which successfully avoids an undesirable impending danger.

[DELIBERATE]

3. Yuàn 遠 (ant. jìn 近 "move close to") is a specific strategy of avoidance which is well within one's control and consists in keeping what is undesirable at a long distance from one.

[DELIBERATE], [HIGH-DEGREE]

4. Lí 離 differs from yuàn 遠 in the fact that no great distance, concrete or abstract, is implied in the word.

[DELIBERATE]; [[DERIVED]]

5. Chú 除 refers to the avoidance or removal of something that is perceived as posing a powerful threat. See REMOVE

[CAUSATIVE], [DELIBERATE]; [[DERIVED]]

6. Qù 去 (ant. lí 罹 "get exposed to") is avoidance through getting rid of what is threatening.

[CAUSATIVE], [DELIBERATE]; [[DERIVED]]

7. Jué 絕 refers to avoidance through getting rid completely and definitively of what is threatening.

[ABSTRACT], [CAUSATIVE], [DELIBERATE], [HIGH-DEGREE]

8. Tuì 退 refers to avoidance by withdrawing from what exposes one to what is threatening.

[DELIBERATE], [SPECIFIC]

9. Wù 勿 is a negation referring to an instruction to avoid doing something, and the word often has an object pronoun understood. See NOT.

[GRAMMATICALISED]

Modern Chinese Criteria

避免 is the current standard word for avoiding anything undesirable.

幸免 focusses on the lucky success of avoidance.

力避 focusses on the effort expended in avoiding something.

避開 focusses the deliberate keeping out of the way of what one is avoiding.

閃開 focusses on the quickness of response involved in avoiding something.

省得 refers specifically to avoiding the expending of effort or resources of any kind.

回避 focusses on polite avoidance, especially of proximity.

免除 refers to avoidance of abstract things, such as responsibilities or mistakes etc..

避開 focusses on the distance between the avoider and what he avoids.

苟免 focusses on the irregularity of avoiding what one really should not avoid.

規避 focusses on the rule-governed nature of avoidance.

預防 refers to avoidance through anticipation and preparation against what one avoids.

戒忌

禁忌

免於

省卻

畏避

引避

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 5.1012

MEIDUNGSVERHALTEN

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 51

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 163
  • vt+prep+N : 32
  • vt+V[0] : 21
  • vt[oN] : 21
  • vt{NEG}+.Vt(oN) : 5
  • vt+prep+Nab : 4
  • vt(oN) : 4
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2 : 2
  • VPtoN : 2
  • VPt[oN] : 1
  • VPt(oN) : 1
  • VPi : 1
  • vtoS : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 65
  • 春秋左傳 : 60
  • 論語 : 24
  • 管子 : 13
  • 六祖壇經 : 13
  • 荀子 : 10
  • 孟子 : 9
  • 禮記 : 6
  • 說苑 : 6
  • 呂氏春秋 : 5
  • 論衡 : 5
  • 莊子 : 5
  • 百喻經 : 5
  • 法集要頌經 : 4
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 3
  • 賢愚經 : 3
  • 祖堂集 : 3
  • 尹文子 : 3
  • 晏子春秋 : 2
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 2
  • 臨濟錄 : 2
  • 韓詩外傳 : 2
  • 法句經 : 2
  • 墨子 : 1
  • 孫子 : 1
  • 戰國策 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 史記 : 1
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 1

Words

   miǎn OC: mronʔ MC: miɛn 76 Attributions

The general word is miǎn 免 (ant. zāo 遭 "encounter"), and this refers to any voluntary or involuntary process leading to one's escape from what otherwise might occur, especially one's being spared a negative experience. [CONCRETE], [GENERAL]

  • vt(oN)escape from the contextually determinate thing
  • vt[oN]avoid the worst; go free of punishment, go scot free; go free of misfortune; escape menial labour; escape (from trouble)
  • vt[oN]stativebe evasive, take evasive actions so as to avoid harmful consequences
  • vt+prep+Navoid; escape from (something); keep away from (somebody)
  • vt+prep+Nabto avoid doing something or undergoing something 不免於殺
  • vt+V[0]avoid to V
  • vtoNavoid (something); try to keep away from; keep away from
  • vtoNcausativecause/allow to escape
  • vtoNcausativecause (oneself) to avoid trouble/escape trouble
  • vtoNcausativecause (oneself) to avoid disaster/death
  • vtoNperfectiveescape from
  • vtoNpermissiveallow (oneself) to escape
  • vtoSavoid that
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2causativemake (somebody N1) avoid (something N2) 免國於患
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2causativecause (oneself) to avoid N2 (or: deliberately avoid!!!)
避 / 辟   bì OC: beɡs MC: biɛ bì OC: peɡ MC: piɛk 58 Attributions

Bì 避 (ant. mào 冒"expose oneself to"), unlike miǎn 免, is always deliberate and describes a strategy of action which successfully avoids an undesirable impending danger. [DELIBERATE] Bì 避 (ant. mào 冒"expose oneself to"), unlike miǎn 免, is always deliberate and describes a strategy of action which successfully avoids an undesirable impending danger. [DELIBERATE]

  • vtoNstay clear of; keep away from, get out of the way of, keep out of the way of; ZZ 37: (decide to) keep away from (high and low places); flinch before (an enemy); bypass and fail to consider (a candidate);
  • vtoNshirkshirk
  • vt+V[0]avoid to V
  • vt(oN)shun or avoid to step on the contextually determinate object
   táo OC: ɡ-laaw MC: dɑu 41 Attributions
  • vtoNfromescape from; avoid by running away from; run away from, abscond from (difficulties, contracts etc)
  • vtoNiussiveorder people to avoid
  • vtoNpassivebe avoided
   yuàn OC: ɢʷans MC: ɦi̯ɐn 18 Attributions

Yuàn 遠 (ant. jìn 近 "move close to") is a specific strategy of avoidance which is well within one's control and consists in keeping what is undesirable at a long distance from one, and lí 離 differs from yuàn 遠 in the degree of distance implied in the word. [DELIBERATE], [HIGH-DEGREE]

  • vtoNkeep (disasters) at bay; stay clear of (disasters; the true Way);
   lí OC: b-rel MC: liɛ 17 Attributions

Lí 離 differs from yuàn 遠 in the fact that no great distance, concrete or abstract, is implied in the word. [DELIBERATE]; [[DERIVED]]

  • vt(oN)get away from the contextually determinate situation N
  • vtoNget away from; get to keep well away from, keep far from
  • vtoNfigurativeavoid (abstract object); distance oneself from
   wú OC: ma MC: mi̯o 10 Attributions
  • vt+V[0]negativeavoid to; be sure not to [This can also be taken more traditionally as a padV.]
   wù OC: mɯd MC: mi̯ut 7 Attributions

Wù 勿 is a negation referring to an instruction to avoid doing something, and the word often has an object pronoun understood. See NOT [GRAMMATICALISED]

  • vt{NEG}+.Vt(oN)avoid to, make sure not to
  • vt+V[0]make sure not to Vi
   wéi OC: ɢul MC: ɦɨi 6 Attributions
  • vt+prep+Navoid
  • vtoNavoid out of fear (GY); escape (from somebody or something)
  • vtoNpassiveto be avoided
   qù OC: khas MC: khi̯ɤ 5 Attributions

Qù 去 (ant. lí 罹 "get exposed to") is avoidance through getting rid of what is threatening. [CAUSATIVE], [DELIBERATE]; [[DERIVED]]

  • vt(oN)avoid the contextually determinate thing
  • vtoNavoid
脫 / 脫   duó OC: lood MC: dʷɑt tuō OC: lʰood MC: thʷɑt 4 Attributions
  • vt[oN]escape from things, abscond
  • vt+prep+Navoid
  • vtoNavoid
   chú OC: rla MC: ɖi̯ɤ 3 Attributions

Chú 除 refers to the avoidance or removal of something that is perceived as posing a powerful threat. See REMOVE [CAUSATIVE], [DELIBERATE]; [[DERIVED]]

  • vtoNavoid (misfortunes); keep (disasters) at bay
   zhǐ OC: kljɯʔ MC: tɕɨ 2 Attributions
  • vt+V[0]avoid V-ing
   fú MC: pjut OC: pɯd 2 Attributions
  • vt V[0]take care not to
   bié OC: bred MC: biɛt 1 Attribution
  • vtoNLIJI 12.77f: avoid
   jì OC: ɡɯs MC: gɨ 1 Attribution
  • vt[oN]eschew, avoid harming those in authority
   dùn OC: ɡ-luuns MC: duo̝n 1 Attribution
  • vtoNpassivebe avoided by hiding from it
移避   yí bì OC: k-lal beɡs MC: jiɛ biɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPt(oN)move away so as to avoid a contextually determinate place N
脫止   tuō zhǐ OC: lʰood kljɯʔ MC: thʷɑt tɕɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPiactescape so as to find peace
迴避   huí bì OC: ɢuul beɡs MC: ɦuo̝i biɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNavoid (Tang dyn. word?; appears also in BIANWEN)
遠離   yuǎn lí OC: ɢʷanʔ b-rel MC: ɦi̯ɐn liɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNdistance oneself strictly from
   xiāo  MC: sjew  OC: smew  1 Attribution
  • vtoNpassivebe avoided; be blocked, be prevented
轉脫   zhuǎn tuō MC: trjwenX thwat OC: tonʔ lʰood 1 Attribution
  • VPt[oN]conativetend to evade toil
退   tuì OC: thuubs MC: thuo̝i 0 Attributions

Tuì 退 refers to avoidance by withdrawing from what exposes one to what is threatening. [DELIBERATE], [SPECIFIC]

  • vtoNavoid (military service)
拔拂   bá fú OC: breed phɯd MC: bɣɛt phi̯ut 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNavoid
辭避   cí bì OC: zɯ beɡs MC: zɨ biɛ 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNavoid, escape from
阿避   ā ē bì MC: 'a bjieH OC: qlaal beɡs 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNinchoativeDELENDUM 
  • VPtoNconativetry to avoid something; keep away from something

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: