LACK  沒有

SITUATION OF NOT HAVING, OR NOT to BEING-IN the UNIVERSE.
ABSENTDEFICIENTWITHOUTABSENCEBE WITHOUTBE IN NEED OFNEEDBE LACKINGREQUIREWANTBE SHORT OFBE DEFICIENT INBE BEREFT OFBE LOW ONBE PRESSED FORHAVE INSUFFICIENTINFORMAL BE STRAPPED FOR
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The general term for the absence, lack or the failure to have something is wú 無 (ant. yǒu 有 "have").

2. Quē 缺 refers to the absence of what ought to be there.

3. Quē 闕 can refer specifically to the deliberate or inadvertent omission of what one might expect was there, but sometimes the word is used interchangeably with quē 缺.

4. Fá 乏 (ant. zú 足 "have enough of") refers to the insufficiency of something needed or the absence of supplies.

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 9.93

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 450

ABSQUE

...

est enim absentiae nota. V. Sine.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

abesse "be absent" corresponds to 無 which also denotes pure absence.

deesse "be missing" refers to the absence of something that should be there, rather like 闕.

The difference between inchoative deficere "come to be short of" and deesse "be short of" has no corresponding pair in CC.

LACK

carere refers to the lack of a desirable possession.

egere refers to the objective lack of an indispensable possession.

indigere refers to the subjective lack of an indispensable possession.

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 41 AND 79B

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 1.29

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 1.70

ABWESENHEIT

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 794

缺,闕

1. WL claims that in the meaning "defect", "fault" the graph used in ancient times was que1 闕. In fact, the graph que1 缺 is also quite current in pre-Buddhist texts.

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 954

罔,網,网

BORCHERT 2005 The Encyclopedia of Philosophy

NONEXISTENT OBJECT, NON-BEING

DE VAAN 2008 Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the Other Italic Languages

careo 'to lack, be without' [v. II; pf. caruT] (PL+)

Derivatives: castus 'free from, pure, chaste' (P1.+),

BARCK 2010 Ästhetische Grundbegriffe 1.1

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien 1

ABESSE; DEESSE; DEFICERE. 1. Abess.e denotea

absence as a local relation, to be away from a place;

but d e e s s e denotes an absence by which a thing is rendered incomplete, and means to fail, to be wanting,

in opp. to esse and superesse. Cic. Brut. 80. Calidio

hoc unum, si nihil utilitatis habebat, abfuit, si opus

erat, Defait. 2. Deesse denotes a completed (i.e.

already existing), deficere, a commencing state.

Cic. Verr. i. 11. Vererer no oratio deesset, ne vox

viresque deficerent. (v. 339.)

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 179A

ABWESENHEIT

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 118
  • vt0oN : 35
  • VPtoN : 28
  • vi : 17
  • vtoN.adV : 15
  • VPt0oN{SUBJ} : 13
  • VPt+V[0] : 10
  • nab : 9
  • vt(oN) : 6
  • VPi : 5
  • vt+V[0] : 4
  • vadV : 3
  • vadN : 2
  • NPab : 2
  • vt+prep+N : 2
  • vtoN.adS : 1
  • vt[0]oN.adV(0){NEG} : 1
  • vtoN.postadV : 1
  • vt0oN1{SUBJ}.postN2{PLACE} : 1
  • vtoN.adS : 1
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2 : 1
  • vi-P : 1
  • padN : 1
  • n : 1
  • npro : 1
  • vtoN1.postadN2 : 1
  • VPt0[oN] : 1
  • VPi(0) : 1
  • vadVt(oN) : 1

Attributions by text

  • 孟子 : 36
  • 荀子 : 34
  • 說苑 : 28
  • 論語 : 23
  • 百喻經 : 18
  • 春秋左傳 : 17
  • 賢愚經 : 17
  • 韓非子 : 12
  • 禮記 : 10
  • 孝經 : 9
  • 晏子春秋 : 8
  • 法言 : 6
  • 戰國策 : 5
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 5
  • 祖堂集 : 5
  • 墨子 : 4
  • 管子 : 4
  • 臨濟錄 : 4
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 4
  • 公孫龍子 : 4
  • 呂氏春秋 : 3
  • 論衡 : 3
  • 法集要頌經 : 3
  • 六祖壇經 : 3
  • 尚書 : 3
  • 孫子 : 2
  • 莊子 : 2
  • 老子 : 2
  • 文子 : 2
  • 史記 : 1
  • 記纂淵海 : 1
  • 老子甲本 : 1
  • 忠經 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 太平經 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1

Words

無 / 毋 / 亡 / 无   wú OC: ma MC: mi̯o wú OC: ma MC: mi̯o wáng OC: maŋ MC: mi̯ɐŋ wú OC: ma MC: mi̯o 162 Attributions

The general term for the lack or the failure to have something is wú 無 (ant. yǒu 有 "have"). The general term for the lack or the failure to have something is wú 無 (ant. yǒu 有 "have"). The general term for the lack or the failure to have something is wú 無 (ant. yǒu 有 "have"). The general term for the lack or the failure to have something is wú 無 (ant. yǒu 有 "have").

  • nabhavenot-having things
  • vinot exist; be lacking; be missing
  • vtoNlack, be without; make do without; imply no (harm or loss); lack the support of (subordinates)
  • vt0oNN=logical subjectthere is a lack of
  • vt(oN)be without the contextually determinate thing
  • nabstativeabsence of untoward things; clear path
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2reflexive.己lack N1 within (oneself)
  • nabplaceabsence; the place where something is absent or lacking
  • nababstractnothingness, absence of anything whatsoever
  • vtoN1.postadN2without
  • vt+V[0]V=object of Vlack an object of V > have nothing to V, have nothing that one Vs
  • vt(oN)ombe without the contextually determinate object N
  • nab.tfeaturelack > non-existence of N
  • nprono one
  • vadNthe missing N, the non-existing N, the non-extant N
  • vtoNN=support of Nlack; have lost the support of N
  • vtoN.adVwithout
  • vt0oNthere are no Ns
  • vtoNderivedlack the experience of> never encounter
  • vtoNlack the N one needs
  • vadVt(oN)there is not the contextually determinate object N of the Vt, there is no contextually determinate object N of the Vt
  • vt0oN1{SUBJ}.postN2{PLACE}there is no N1 at N2
  • vt[0]oN.adV(0){NEG}=無所 e.g. 無與慮國 "have not one to plan for the state with": lack the object of Vt in V-ing
無有   wú yǒu OC: ma ɢʷɯʔ MC: mi̯o ɦɨu 38 Attributions
  • VPihave nothing in it
  • VPt0oN{SUBJ}there is no such thing as N
  • VPtoNstativelack
  • VPi(0)there is not the obligatorily omitted but contextually determinate thing
   fēi OC: pɯl MC: pɨi 14 Attributions
  • vtoN.adVwithout
  • vtoN.adSwithout
無以   wú yǐ OC: ma k-lɯʔ MC: mi̯o jɨ 10 Attributions
  • VPt+V[0]lack the means to; lack the means whereby; not to have what it takes to
  • VPt+V[0]have no object to V
   fá OC: bob MC: bi̯ɐp 9 Attributions

Fá 乏 (ant. zú 足 "have enough of") refers to the insufficiency of something needed or the absence of supplies.

  • nablack, vacancy
  • vifail to arrive when expected, be lacking
  • vt(oN)lack the contextually determinate object
  • vt+prep+Nhave a short supply of
  • vtoNfail to contain, lack, fail to have what one should have
  • vtoNcausativecause there to be a shortage of
   wǎng OC: maŋʔ MC: mi̯ɐŋ 8 Attributions
  • vt+V[0]lack to V > be unable to V (elaveted form of negation)
  • vtoN.adVlacking, being without
  • vtoNlack; be without
  • vt0oNthere is no
   què, quē OC: khod MC: khi̯ɐt 8 Attributions

Quē 闕 can refer specifically to the deliberate or inadvertent omission of what one might expect was there, but sometimes the word is used interchangeably with quē 缺.

  • nabstativelack, shortage; insufficiency; deficiency; lack of defense; state of indigence or defenselessness
  • vadNmissing
  • vimiddle voicebe missing, be lacking
  • vtoNfall short of, lack; fail to provide
  • vtoNcausativecause there to be a lack
   jué OC: dzod MC: dziɛt 6 Attributions
  • vtoNchangefall short of, come to lack; be cut off from so as to lose control over
  • vibe lacking; fall short
   quē OC: khʷeed MC: khet 6 Attributions

Quē 缺 refers to the absence of what ought to be there.

  • nsubjectwhat is lacking, what is missing
  • vadNlacking
  • vi-Pactbe lacking, be absent
  • vibe lacking; (of a post:) be vacant
  • vichangecome to be lacking
  • vtoNlack
   mò OC: maad MC: mʷɑt 3 Attributions
  • vadVnegative無所
  • vtoN無所以
乏短   fá duǎn OC: bob toonʔ MC: bi̯ɐp tʷɑn 2 Attributions
  • VPtoNstativebe short of
乏絕   fá jué OC: bob dzod MC: bi̯ɐp dziɛt 2 Attributions
  • VPiresultativebe in short supply to the point of being used up
無復   wú fù OC: ma buɡs MC: mi̯o bɨu 2 Attributions
  • VPtoNlack any further objects (which there were before?)
亡有   wáng yǒu MC: mjang hjuwX OC: maŋ ɢʷɯʔ 2 Attributions
  • VPiread wú yǒu: not exist
   mǐ MC: mjeX OC: mralʔ 2 Attributions
  • vtoNlack, remain without
   mò OC: maaɡ MC: mɑk 1 Attribution
  • padNrare, archaising PARTICLE: without
不有   bù yǒu OC: pɯʔ ɢʷɯʔ MC: pi̯ut ɦɨu 1 Attribution
  • vt0oNthere is a lack of
無備   wú bèi OC: ma brɯɡs MC: mi̯o bi 1 Attribution

aspect in which one lacks enough preparation

  • NPabfeatureaspect in which one lacks enough preparation
罔有   wǎng yǒu OC: maŋʔ ɢʷɯʔ MC: mi̯ɐŋ ɦɨu 1 Attribution
  • VPt0[oN]there is a lack of
虧欠   kuī qiàn OC: khʷral khoms MC: khiɛ khi̯ɐm 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNbe deficient concerning; lack something in relationship to
闕少   què, quē shǎo OC: khod hmljewʔ MC: khi̯ɐt ɕiɛu 1 Attribution
  • NPabfeaturewhat is lacking > shortcoming; fault
   bù OC: pɯʔ MC: pi̯ut 1 Attribution
  • vtoNfail to act according to N; show a lack of N
   wēi OC: mɯl MC: mɨi 1 Attribution
  • vtoN.adVwithout
  • vtoN.adSif N had not been there, then S
不滿   bù mǎn MC: pjut manX OC: pɯʔ mboonʔ 1 Attribution
  • vtoN.postadVnot fully to the extent of the amount N
   nǜ OC: nuɡ MC: ɳuk 0 Attributions
  • nabmathematical termCHEMLA 2003: shortfall (as opposed to excess of a number, in relation to the exact number)JZ 7.4, Liu Hui's comm: 不盈不朒之正數 "the exact quantity, without excess and without shortfall"JZ 1.32, Li Chunfeng: 圓田正法 "the correct method for the circular figure".
   kuī OC: khʷral MC: khiɛ 0 Attributions
  • vibe in short supply
非實   fēi shí OC: pɯl ɢljiɡ MC: pɨi ʑit 0 Attributions
  • NPsubjectBUDDH: that which lacks reality > non-existent entity
  • NPabfeatureBUDDH: lack of substance > unreality
靡有   mǐ yǒu OC: mralʔ ɢʷɯʔ MC: miɛ ɦɨu 0 Attributions
  • VPt[0]oNarchaic: there are no N
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vtoN.postadVnot fully to the extent of the amount N
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vtoNlack, remain without

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: