Taxonomy of meanings for 之:

  • zhī (OC: kljɯ MC: tɕɨ) 止而切 平 廣韻:【適也往也間也亦姓出姓苑上而切四 】
    • GO TO
      • vifigurativemove in the direction one does
      • vt+prep+NN=humgo to a person N
      • DELETEgo to N in order to V
      • vtoN.-V[0]to go (somewhere) (to do something)
      • vtoNgo to (so as to stay there for a considerable time, or for some business); move towards
      • vtoNfigurativego to
      • grammaticalised, adnominal>>THIS
        • npro.adNthis, these 之二虫 "these two (kinds of) creatures" (ZHUANG)
        • npro.postVtdeicticthis item, this thing
        • npro.postVtindefinitea certain object, the relevant object
        • post-nominal1>GENITIVE PARTICLES
          • npro.postadN1:adN2N1=standard of comparison: 文王之德 "the virtue like that of King Wen" the N2 like that of N1
          • npro.postadN1:=N2appositionN1=class of N2: 彭蠡之川 "the river Pengli" the N2 constituted by/that is none other than N1
          • npro.postadV1:adV2如是之甚 "as intensely as that" modifying an adverb 
          • npro.postV:adN:.adS少之時 VP-X, as a subordinate clause, modifies the NP-Y forming a complex topicalised NP
          • npro.postV:adNprNpr=Vossian舜治民之王良 "(Yao and Shun) are Wang Liangs governing the people"  Nprs that are V-ing"
          • npro.postV:adNADJ 之 N: 美之物也 marker of the modification of a noun by a deverbal adjective
          • npro.postN1:=N2爾之小醜 "you, a petty lout" marker of a non-restrictive modification by verbal expression of a nominal expression
          • npropostN.adV予之不仁也!"how inhumane I am" Exclamatory
          • npropostN.adVrestrictiveMOVE TO RELATIVE CLAUSE MARKER: "天下之為人父者 "fathers among mankind" the N2 from (among) the N1s
          • npropostN.adVas V as N珠之重 "as important as a pearl" be as V as the N-subject 
          • npropostN1.adN2genitiveN2 inalienably attached to N1:  鵬之背 "the back of the Peng" 人之志 "the aspirations of man" the N2 that inalienably belongs to or is attached to N1
          • npropostN1.adN2genitiveNP1=owner/controller of N2: 三家之堂 "the halls owned by the three families" NP1 owns, controls or employs NP2 
          • npropostN1.adN2genitiveN2=kin: 文王之母 "King Wen's mother" NP2 designates a kinship relation which NP1 has to NP2 
          • npropostN1.adN2N1=placeNP1 indicates the placing in space of NP2 四海之內
          • npropostN1.adN2associated withMERGE WITH "N2=attachment to N1: 子之志"?: 草木之名 "the names of plants and trees" NP2 is logically associated with or inherently belongs to NP1
          • npropostN1.adN2featureN2=characteristic feature: 父之道 "the way of a father" NP2 is a feature or characteristic of NP1 
          • npropostN1.adN2N1=source雍之言 "Yong's words" NP1 is the source of NP2 
          • npropostN1.adN2N1=subjectMERGE WITH "N1=grammatical subject but not agent of N2" and/or "N1=agent of the action N"?: 兩君之好 "the good relations between the two ruers" NP1 is the subject of a deverbal nominalised abstract NP2 
          • npropostN1.adN2genitiveN1=grammatical object: 德之行 "the enactment of virtue" NP1 is the object of the action in NP2
          • npropostN1.adN2N2 nominalised by 所N1=subject: 人之所惡 "what men hate" NP2 is nominalised by 所, and NP1 is the subject of the VP that is nominalised 
          • npropostN1.adN2gradedN1=scope of superlative: 士之仁者 of the gentlemen the (most!) human-hearted" of the N1 the most N2 
          • npropostN1.adN2N1=material糞土之牆 "wall made of dung" the NP2 made of NP1 
          • npropostN1.adN2N1=time今之孝者 "of the present time those who are filial-minded"NP1 indicates the placing in time of NP2 
          • npropostN1.adN2N1=durationNP1 indicates the duration in time of NP2 三年之喪
          • npropostN1.adN2sizeN1=size of NP2: 六尺之孤
          • npropostN1.=N2appositionthe NP2 represented by NP1, the NP2 listed in NP1" 驥、溫驪、驊騮、騄耳之駟。 燕操、子罕、田常之賊
          • npropostN1.adN2non-restrictive"the NP1 which/who by the nature of things are NP2" 孝子之有深愛者
          • npropostNpr.adNN2 like N1an N2 like NprX 孔子之師 " teacher like Confucius"
          • npropostV.adNV modifies N 執鞭之士 "gentlemen holding the whip"
          • npropostN1.adN2 N1: result/end-point of N2: 大亂之道 "the way leading to great disorder" "N2 leading to N1"
          • npropostN1.adN2N2 nominalised by 所N1=time: 須臾之所學 "what one has studied in one moment of time" N1 specifies the length of time involved in the action involved in the deverbal N2
          • npropostN1.adN2agentN1=agent of the action N
          • npropostN1.adN2N1=grammatical subject but not agent of N2
          • npropostN1.adN211=environment: 塗巷之人 "a man from the streets"N2 coming from N1 and having features characteristic of the environment N1 
          • npropostN1.adN2N1=benefiting recipient: 寡人之利 “profit for me" N1 is the benefitting recipient object of N2
          • npropostN1.adN2N1=possession: genitive: 智術之士 N2 having/possessing N1 (equal to 有智術之士)
          • npro.postV:adNgenitiveN1=instrument or method of V-ing: 治氣養心之術 "the method of controlling one's vital energy and cultivating one's mind" N is an instrument or method of V-ing
          • npropostN1.adN2N2=part: 仁人之耳目 “the ears and eyes of a good man”, N2 is a part of N1
          •{2}.adNgenitiveN3= relationship between N1 and N2: 是非之分 "the difference between what is right and what is wrong" between
          • npropostN1.adN2genitiveN1=scope: 海内之眾 "the masses of the whole world" N1 is the scope of N2
          • npropostN1.adN2N1=afflicted recipient: 人之患 "troubles of/for men" N1 is the negatively afflicted recipient of N2
          • npropostN1.adN2N1=objectMERGE WITH 德之行: 欲惡取舍之權 "assessment of preferences" N1 is the object/patient of N2
          {The 'genitive' relation is marked by anteposition only, not by 之:} 草木之名 [GRASS TREE] THIS NAME "the names for the grasses and trees" (論語,陽貨)
        • post-nominal2> APPOSITIVE PARTICLES (既言民歸軌物,更解)軌物之名。RULETHING
              "the terms "gui" and "wu"" (左傳 隱公 5.1.1 孔穎達疏)
              • adding a subordinate clause>RELATIVE CLAUSE MARKER
                • padV.postadNrelative clause marker
                • npro.postadN:adV zhě臣之弒君者 “ministers who assassinate their rulers"
              • nominalising the predicate of a sentence>NOMINALISER
                • npro.postadN:adNab老之將至 "the coming arrival of old age" nominaliser converting a sentence with a verbal predicate into an abstract nominalisation
                • npro.postadN:+NabNab=passive德之不脩 "virtue's not being cultivated" Nab is passive: 之 converts a passive N V sentence into an abstract nominalisation of its content 
                • npro.postadN:adNabnominaliser王之於國也 "the king's relation to his state' idiomatic nominaliser of a "preposition" phrase
                • DELETE"Someone/something as VP-Y as PROPER NAME-X" 冉求之藝
                • npro.postN:adNabthe Nab-ing at the time of N[TOPIC]
                • topicaliser of times> "subordinator"WHEN
                  • npro.postN:adNPab:.adS"nominalised" subordinate clause "N's being such and such", with various functions, including temporal ones ("when N did NPab")
                  • npropostN.adV:post-p:.adS苟子之不欲 "if you really do not want to" "nominalised" marked conditional subordinate clause 
            • PRONOUN
              • DELETEBut why do we have to go to the Gōngshān clan? ?????
              • npro.postVt:+V[0]pivot使之富 "cause them to become rich" 
              • npro.postvt:adV[0]object of coverb與之俱 "be together with him"
              • npro.postVtanaphoricreferring to an aforementioned object: him, her, it
              • nprocataphoriccataphoric: the following object, the object identified further down in the context
              • npro.postVtnonreferentialan object, things; a place; something [cognate object; indefinite dummy object pronouns without reference: things, people; someone 以約失之者"Those who, through keeping to the main thing, get things wrong"]
              • npro.postVtanaphoricanaphorically refers to whatever a preceding nonreferential object pronoun refers to
              • npro.postvtt:oNindirect object賜之卮酒 "offered him a beaker of wine"
              • npro{OBJ}+Vt此之謂 莫之,未之
              • nprodeicticthe contextually relevant present and object (non-anaphoric)
              • nprosubjectrarely used as a full noun: this one 之十有三"these are thirteen in number"
              • vproanaphoric(wish) to do this
              • nprocataphoricthe following
              • npro.postVtindefiniteindefinite, personally "one" in the function of object
              • npro.postVtindefiniteabstract object pronoun without reference (but referred back to by another pronoun): something
              • npro.postVtindefinitenon-referential general: anything
              • npro.postVtsituationrefers to the aforementioned situation
              exocentric: 之十有三 “These are thirteen in number” (sic! rare!)
              • OBJECT PRONOUN 1 殺之KILL
                  THIS[+omitted/understood head noun]
                  • OBJECT PRONOUN 2 non-referential "something"
                  • EGO
                    • npro.postVt1. person singularme 天厭之may Heaven reject me!
                    天厭之! “May Heaven reject ME!”
                    • WE
                      • npro.postVtus 用之則行"When they use us then we engage in public action"
                      用之則行 "When they use US then we engage in public action"
                  • YOU
                    • npro.postVt2. person singularyou
                    寡人懼之; “I was afraid of YOU.”
                    • YOU/PLUR
                      • npro.postVtyou
                      Ban Zhao: 其勖勉之 “may this encourage and urge you on”
                  • SELF
                    • DELETEhimself
                    實不洗之 “in fact he had not washed himself”. JIE HUIQUAN 2005: 1133