REPEATING what has HAPPENED or been ACT:done in the PAST.
Old Chinese Criteria
1. Fù 復 tends to refer to a cyclic repetition of any any event, action, or process.
2. Yòu 又 refers to linear repetition, often of an incremental nature, of any event, action, or process (compare LAO 玄之又玄 "even more mysterious than the mysterious".
[GENERAL], [INCREASING!], [LINEAR]
3. Zài 再 refers generally to linear repetition of the same action, typically by a human agent.
[GENERAL], [LINEAR], [SUBJ=HUMAN!]
4. Gèng 更 in front of transitive verbs typically implies a change of object and thus often retains elements of its original force "improve", and the word often retains the nuance of an intended systematic improvement achieved by the change.
5. Xí 襲 refers to repetition by way of a continuation of a traditIon. See REPEAT.
[LINEAR], [SPECIFIC], [SUBJ=HUMAN]
Modern Chinese Criteria
再 is the current modern word for "again" and its meaning derives from the meaning "twice", and the repeated action is typically (but not always) in the future.
又 contrasts notoriously with 再 in many other meanings, but when it means "again", the reference is typically to a repeated action in the past or in the present. [Add references to the extensive literature on this distinction.]
復 (lit) "again" is current only in epistolary style.
又要 refers to repeated action in the future.
還 does not primarily refer to repetition but to doing something X in addition to something else Y.
重 chóng "repeatedly" is usually a bound form in modern Chinese.
反覆 "again and again" focusses on multiple repetition.
一再 is idiomatic for continuous repetition.
再三 is idiomatic for continuous repetition.
再三再四 is idiomatic for continuous repetition.
first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH/
Old Chinese Contrasts
1. Fù 復 can be negated to mean "no more, no longer" (Ban Zhao, NJ); yòu 又 cannot be so negated.
2. Fù 復 can refer to regaining things (CC fù sū 復穌 "come to life again"); yòu 又 cannot be so used.
3. Fù 復 always refers to the repetition of the same kind of action; yòu 又 can refer to the same kind of action, but it can also present a list of significantly comparable actions.
4. When the particles link to occurrences of basically the same event, then difference between them is that fù 復 invites us to dwell on the sameness of the events, and yòu 又 invites us to dwell on their separate occurrence. Since yòu 又 emphasises the difference in this case, it is natural that the word can also be used when in fact the events show considerable difference.
5. Fù dé 復得 is "to retrieve", yòu dé 又得 is "to get another one".
6. Fù shēng 復生 "be reborn" and gèng shēng 更生 "be born again" (ZHUANG 19), sù shēng 甦生 "be born again" contrasts with yòu shēng 又生 "also give birth to"
7. Fù lì 復立 "arise anew" contrasts with yòu lì 又立 "establish in addition" and gèng lì 更立 "establish as replacement".
iterum refers to doing something a second time.
rursum refers to doing something again, and in the same way.
de integro refers to doing something again in a fresh or new way.
denuo refers to returning again to a previous state or situation.
1. WL claims that za4i 再 always means "twice" and claims that the word only came to mean "again" in the 近代 period. In fact, za4i 再 certainly does often mean "twice", but there is a wide range of current cases where the word means not "twice" but "a second time". Significantly, even the SHUOWEN explanation of the word suggests this second meaning.
2. WL does not begin to appreciate the basic differences between the two words for again. WL 99 glosses yo4u 又 as fu4 復. Compare this identification of meaning with the contrasts elaborated in SSC under the heading of AGAIN.
Attributions by syntactic funtion
Attributions by text
- 韓非子 : 37
- 春秋左傳 : 29
- 百喻經 : 13
- 說苑 : 8
- 禮記 : 7
- 莊子 : 7
- 戰國策 : 6
- 祖堂集 : 6
- 賢愚經 : 5
- 論衡 : 4
- 管子 : 4
- 法集要頌經 : 4
- 論語 : 3
- 春秋穀梁傳 : 3
- 臨濟錄 : 3
- 孟子 : 3
- 史記 : 3
- 楚辭 : 2
- 荀子 : 1
- 記纂淵海 : 1
- 阮籍集四卷 : 1
- 新序 : 1
- 呂氏春秋 : 1
- 孝經 : 1
- 韓詩外傳 : 1
復 fù OC: buɡs MC: bɨu 61 Attributions
Fù 復 tends to refer to a cyclic repetition. >>GENERAL, CYCLIC!
- vadVagain (as in 復戰 "fight again, renew battle".(often of reverting to an original state:) again (失而復得"lose but regain again") occasionally and rarely adversative: on the contrary; (with negatives, not) any more, not any longer; but again
再 zài OC: tsɯɯs MC: tsəi 38 Attributions
Zài 再 refers generally to linear repetition of the same action. >>GENERAL, LINEAR
- nsubjecta second case, a second instance
- vadVa second time; for the second time 再取 "marry again" 再。。。再 "over and over again..."
又 yòu OC: ɢʷɯs MC: ɦɨu 19 Attributions
Yòu 又 refers to linear repetition, often of an incremental nature (compare LAO 玄之又玄 "even more mysterious than the mysterious". >>GENERAL, LINEAR, INCREASING
- padVonce more, again (as in 又戰 "fight another battle")
- vtoNrepeat (the same action)
更 gèng OC: kraaŋs MC: kɣaŋ 9 Attributions
Gèng 更 in front of transitive verbs typically implies a change of object and thus often retains elements of its original force, and the word often retains the nuance of an intended systematic improvement achieved by the change.
- vadVanother time, yet again; once more; also plural: more times in the future
復更 fù gèng OC: buɡs kraaŋs MC: bɨu kɣaŋ 8 Attributions
- VPadVchange again > yet another time, again
還 huán OC: ɡʷraan MC: ɦɣan 7 Attributions
- vadVagain (to be read hái since when???)
又復 yòu fù OC: ɢʷɯs buɡs MC: ɦɨu bɨu 4 Attributions
- PPadVonce again
薦 jiàn OC: tseens MC: tsen 1 Attribution
- vadVfor a second time
亦復 yì fù OC: k-laɡ buɡs MC: jiɛk bɨu 1 Attribution
- VPadVagain, also on this occasion
又更 yòu gèng OC: ɢʷɯs kraaŋs MC: ɦɨu kɣaŋ 1 Attribution
又重 yòu chóng OC: ɢʷɯs doŋ MC: ɦɨu ɖi̯oŋ 1 Attribution
更就 gèng jiù OC: kraaŋs dzuɡs MC: kɣaŋ dzɨu 1 Attribution
續復 xù fù OC: sɢloɡ buɡs MC: zi̯ok bɨu 1 Attribution
- VPadVagain, another time
還復 huán fù OC: ɡʷraan buɡs MC: ɦɣan bɨu 1 Attribution
- VPadVand again and again
往來 wǎng lái MC: hjwangX loj OC: ɢʷaŋʔ m-rɯɯ 1 Attribution
- VPadVover and over again
襲 xí OC: zɯb MC: zip 0 Attributions
重 chóng OC: doŋ MC: ɖi̯oŋ 0 Attributions
- vadVdoubling> another time, yet again; once again
Existing SW for
Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: