PARTICLE  虛詞虛辭

A WORD that NOT VERBAL AND NOT NOMINAL. [NOTE THAT THE GRAMMATICAL PARTICLES HAVE NOT BEEN FOCUSSED SO FAR IN THE SYSTEM AND NO SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS HAS BEEN APPLIED SO FAR.]
Hypernym

WORDSOUND IMAGE of a CONCEPT. (Leibniz, Couturat p. 432) -> SOUNDWHAT CAN be HEARD. -> HEARPERCEIVE SOUND. -> PERCEIVEBECOME AWARE of BECAUSE one INTERACTS WITH. -> AWAREBe ABLE to VOLUNTARILY:deliberately REACT to. -> ABLEHAVE what one NEEDS in SELF:oneself FOR ACHIEVING something. -> HAVERELATION to something such that it BE-IN:is in one OR is CONTROLLED by one. -> RELATIONFEATURE of TWO OR MORE THINGS TOGETHER. -> FEATUREABSTRACT OBJECT a THING is SAID to BE OR to HAVE. -> OBJECT[NO HYPERNYM.] WHAT one CAN NAME:refer to. -> PRIME -> N/A

Hyponym
  • EXCLAMATORY PARTICLE PARTICLE USED FOR EMPHASISING. [NOTE THAT THE GRAMMATICAL PARTICLES HAVE NOT BEEN FOCUSSED SO FAR IN THE SYSTEM AND NO SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS HAS BEEN APPLIED SO FAR.]
    • FINAL PARTICLES PARTICLE USED at the END of a SENTENCE. [NOTE THAT THE GRAMMATICAL PARTICLES HAVE NOT BEEN FOCUSSED SO FAR IN THE SYSTEM AND NO SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS HAS BEEN APPLIED SO FAR.]
      • PASSIVE MARKER WORD WHICH SHOWS PASSIVE FUNCTION. [NOTE THAT THE GRAMMATICAL PARTICLES HAVE NOT BEEN FOCUSSED SO FAR IN THE SYSTEM AND NO SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS HAS BEEN APPLIED SO FAR.]
        • PLURAL SUFFIXES SYMBOL of QUANTITY of MANY.
          • SINCE In the FUTURE IN-RELATION-TO a DEFINED MOMENT [[GRAMMAR]]
            • SOME MORE IN-RELATION-TO NONE.
              • SUFFIX NON-FREE MORPHEME ATTACHING AT THE END OF A WORD. GRAMMAR []
                • THEN ASSUMING FOR ARGUMENT that the PRECEDING SENTENCE IS TRUE. Contrast THEREUPON.
                  • THEREFORE ASSUMING that the PRECEDING SENTENCE is TRUE [GRAMMAR]
                    • TOPIC MARKER PARTICLE:MARKER OF TOPIC
                      • OBJECT MARKER PARTICLE that SHOWS that something is the grammatical OBJECT. []
                        • INTERROGATORY PARTICLES QUESTION PARTICLE. [] GRAMMAR PRELIMINARY ENTRY
                          • GENITIVE PARTICLES ????
                            • HIS GRAMMAR[]
                            • NOMINALISER PARTICLE CAUSING something to BECOME NOUN:nominal. GRAMMAR[]
                              • RELATIVE CLAUSE MARKER GRAMMAR []. PARTICLE marking what is construed as a postposed modifier of a nominal expression.
                                • WHICH [GRAMMAR]
                                  • VERBAL SUFFIX [GRAMMAR]GRAMMAR[]
                                    • ON BE-IN ABOVE.
                                      • CLASSIFIERS NUMBER MARKER FOR COUNTED THINGS. [[THIS HAS TO BE MOVED AND REVISED. ]]
                                        • MODAL MODIFIERS [NOTE THAT THE GRAMMATICAL PARTICLES HAVE NOT BEEN FOCUSSED SO FAR IN THE SYSTEM AND NO SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS HAS BEEN APPLIED SO FAR.]
                                          • MODAL PARTICLES Grammar [NOTE THAT THE GRAMMATICAL PARTICLES HAVE NOT BEEN FOCUSSED SO FAR IN THE SYSTEM AND NO SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS HAS BEEN APPLIED SO FAR.]
                                          • PREFIXES GRAMMAR [NOTE THAT THE GRAMMATICAL PARTICLES HAVE NOT BEEN FOCUSSED SO FAR IN THE SYSTEM AND NO SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS HAS BEEN APPLIED SO FAR.]
                                            • QUESTION PARTICLES GRAMMAR [][NOTE THAT THE GRAMMATICAL PARTICLES HAVE NOT BEEN FOCUSSED SO FAR IN THE SYSTEM AND NO SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS HAS BEEN APPLIED SO FAR.]
                                              • WEAK VERBAL SUFFIX [GRAMMAR][NOTE THAT THE GRAMMATICAL PARTICLES HAVE NOT BEEN FOCUSSED SO FAR IN THE SYSTEM AND NO SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS HAS BEEN APPLIED SO FAR.]
                                                • IMPERATIVE MARKER PARTICLE MARKING COMMAND. [NOTE THAT THE GRAMMATICAL PARTICLES HAVE NOT BEEN FOCUSSED SO FAR IN THE SYSTEM AND NO SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS HAS BEEN APPLIED SO FAR.]
                                                  Old Chinese Criteria

                                                  THIS IS JUST A PLACE-HOLDER

                                                    Attributions by syntactic funtion

                                                    • ncpost-V{NUM}.+N : 20
                                                    • ncc(post-V{NUM}.)+N : 12
                                                    • ppost.S1 S2 : 9
                                                    • p : 7
                                                    • vpostadV : 6
                                                    • padV : 5
                                                    • ncpost-V{NUM}.post-N : 5
                                                    • ppostadV(.adN) : 5
                                                    • ppostadN1(.adN2) : 5
                                                    • padV.post-N : 3
                                                    • ncpost-V{NUM}(.+N) : 2
                                                    • ppostadV : 2
                                                    • padS : 2
                                                    • ncpost-npro.+N : 2
                                                    • padV.postN{OBJ} : 1
                                                    • ppostN. V : 1
                                                    • nc1ad:V{NUM}+.nc2+N : 1
                                                    • ppostNpr{OBJ}.postVt : 1
                                                    • ncpost-npro(.+N) : 1
                                                    • ncc(post-npro.)+N : 1
                                                    • ppostadV.+N{SUBJ} : 1

                                                    Attributions by text

                                                    • 祖堂集 : 36
                                                    • 臨濟錄 : 16
                                                    • 陸機集十一卷 : 14
                                                    • 孟子 : 7
                                                    • 孝經 : 5
                                                    • 荀子 : 3
                                                    • 說苑 : 3
                                                    • 六祖壇經 : 2
                                                    • 莊子 : 2
                                                    • 晏子春秋 : 1
                                                    • 史記 : 1
                                                    • 管子 : 1
                                                    • 朱子語類 : 1

                                                    Words

                                                    個 / 箇   gè OC: kaals MC: kɑ gè OC: kaals MC: kɑ 19 Attributions
                                                    • nc1ad:V{NUM}+.nc2+Nclassifierduplicate idiomatic colloquial classifier
                                                    • ncc(post-V{NUM}.)+NN=humgeneral classifier (since the Tang) with omitted numeral 一
                                                    • ncc(post-V{NUM}.)+Nclassifiergeneral classifier (since the Tang) with omitted numeral 一
                                                    • ncc(post-V{NUM}.)+NN=nonhuclassifier
                                                    • ncpost-npro.+NN1=progeneral classifier preceded by a demonstrative pronoun
                                                    • ncpost-V{NUM}.+Nclassifiergeneral classifier from the Tang period onwards
                                                    • ncpost-V{NUM}.post-Nclassifierclassifer for arrrows etc, written with the simplified character lacking in BIG5
                                                    • ncpost-V{NUM}(.+N)classifiergeneral classifier (since the Tang) with omitted contextually determinate N or with the N preposed and topicalized)
                                                       dǐ OC: tiilʔ MC: tei 14 Attributions
                                                    • ppostadN1(.adN2)marker of exocentric construction in which N1 modifies a contextually determinate N2
                                                    • ppostadV(.adN)nominalisernominalizing particle (the one who...; what is V) (this vernacular particle appeared during the Tang)
                                                    • ppostadVV=verbal phraseparticle giving emphasis to a (complex) verbal phrase
                                                    • (ID MISSING)particle after intranstive verbs (giving emphasis to the descriptive nature of the verbs)
                                                    • (ID MISSING)particle postposed to intransitive reduplicated verbs (giving emphasis to the descriptive nature of the verb)
                                                       gè OC: kaals MC: kɑ 9 Attributions
                                                    • ncc(post-npro.)+NN1=progeneral classifier (with a contextually determinate demonstractive pronoun)
                                                    • ncc(post-V{NUM}.)+Ngeneral classifier (Song dyn.) (with deleted numeral 一)
                                                    • ncc(post-V{NUM}.)+NN=nonhugeneral classifier (with deleted numeral and with inanimate N); seems occasionally to have a function similar to a indefinite article
                                                    • ncpost-npro(.+N)N1=progeneral classifier postposted to a demonstrative pronoun (with contextually determinate N2)
                                                    • ncpost-V{NUM}.+Nmeasure word
                                                       rán OC: njen MC: ȵiɛn 6 Attributions
                                                    • vpostadVparticle marking the end of a comparison, resumptively: "like that, in that way"
                                                       zhī MC: tsyi OC: kljɯ 6 Attributions
                                                    • ppoeticparticle without grammatical function, poetic filler in a part of a line that is regularly filled with a variety of grammatical particles in adjacent lines
                                                       ér OC: njɯ MC: ȵɨ 4 Attributions
                                                    • padV.post-N一日而三失伍 "within one day he managed three times to loose contact with his unit"
                                                    • padV.postnpro{Q}奚而不喪 "why did he not lose control [of his state]?"
                                                    • padV.postN{OBJ}曾此而不知 "even this they do not understand"
                                                       tóu OC: doo MC: du 3 Attributions
                                                    • ncpost-V{NUM}.+Nclassifierclassifier for large domestic animals such as buffalos and donkeys
                                                       pǐ OC: phid MC: phit 2 Attributions
                                                    • nc{PRED}post-V{NUM}counting noun for horses and oxen
                                                    • ncpost-V{NUM}.post-Nclassifierclassifier for horses
                                                       sī OC: snɯ MC: sɨ 2 Attributions
                                                    • padSsentence-initial euphonic particle in SHI
                                                    • ppostN. Vsentence-internal euphonic particle in SHI
                                                       yù OC: p-lud MC: jʷit 2 Attributions
                                                    • padVpre-classical particle with unclear meaning
                                                       shǒu OC: qhljuʔ MC: ɕɨu 2 Attributions
                                                    • ncpost-V{NUM}.+Nclassifierclassifier for rhyming documents such as poems
                                                       yòu MC: hjuwH OC: ɢʷɯs 2 Attributions
                                                    • padVmodal adverb increasing the affective force of a rhetorical question
                                                       yī MC: 'jij OC: qlil 2 Attributions
                                                    • p Spoeticsentence initial particle with the clear meaning
                                                       hū MC: hu OC: ɢaa 2 Attributions
                                                    • ppostV. Nempty filler particle with no semantic function, used in certain positions in poetry
                                                       yú yū MC: 'jo OC: qa 2 Attributions
                                                    • pfiller particle without semantic function
                                                       yě OC: lalʔ MC: jɣɛ 1 Attribution
                                                    • ppostNpr{OBJ}.postVtpostnominal particle after proper name objects
                                                       jù OC: ɡos MC: gi̯o 1 Attribution
                                                    • ncpost-V{NUM}.post-Nnominal classifier (for coffins, etc.)
                                                       zé OC: skɯɯɡ MC: tsək 1 Attribution
                                                    • ncpost-V{NUM}.+Nclassifierclassifier for abstract items
                                                       kǒu OC: khooʔ MC: khu 1 Attribution
                                                    • ncpost-V{NUM}.+Nquantifierx-mouthful of N
                                                       sī OC: sqe MC: siɛ 1 Attribution
                                                    • padVSHI: particle without specific meaning?
                                                       zhū OC: to MC: ʈi̯o 1 Attribution
                                                    • ncpost-V{NUM}.+Nclassifierclassifier for trees
                                                       tiáo OC: ɡ-lɯɯw MC: deu 1 Attribution
                                                    • ncpost-V{NUM}.+Nclassifierclassifier: item of (with abstract nouns)
                                                       wú OC: ma MC: mi̯o 1 Attribution
                                                    • padSpre-classical sentence-initial particle with unclear meaning (SHI 毛 傳:"無念,念也。", possibly a trace of the volitional prefix *m-)
                                                       zhòng OC: tjuŋs MC: tɕuŋ 1 Attribution
                                                    • ncpost-V{NUM}.post-Nclassifierclassifier for persons of whom there is a large number
                                                       yǐ OC: ɢɯʔ MC: ɦɨ 1 Attribution
                                                    • ppostadV.+N{SUBJ}psychemphatic sentence-internal modal particle
                                                    • ppostadV1.adV2exclamatoryparticle placed after an emphatic focussed adverbial (which one might even suspect of being a transposed main verb)
                                                       zhuǎn OC: tonʔ MC: ʈiɛn 1 Attribution
                                                    • ncpost-V{NUM}.+Nclassifierclassifier for speech act 一轉話
                                                       chēng OC: sthraaŋ MC: ʈʂhɣaŋ 1 Attribution
                                                    • ncpost-V{NUM}.+Nclassifierclassifier: a frying pan with N; a griddle of N
                                                       zhī OC: tjeɡ MC: tɕiɛk 1 Attribution
                                                    • ncpost-V{NUM}.+Nclassifierclassifier (for dices,...) 三集投子
                                                       qí MC: gi OC: ɡɯ 1 Attribution
                                                    • pparticle without grammatical function, poetic filler in a part of a line that is regularly filled with a variety of grammatical particles in adjacent lines
                                                       qí MC: gi OC: ɡɯ 1 Attribution
                                                    • ppost.S1 S2poeticparticle without grammatical function, poetic filler in a part of a line that is regularly filled with a variety of grammatical particles in adjacent lines
                                                       kuài OC: khuuls MC: khuo̝i 0 Attributions
                                                    • ncpost-V{NUM}.+Nclassifiernominal classifier: junk of > individual classifier (classifier for bones,...)
                                                       zài OC: sklɯɯs MC: tsəi 0 Attributions
                                                    • padVarchaic particle of indeterminate meaning
                                                       yú OC: ɢʷra MC: ɦi̯o 0 Attributions
                                                    • padS
                                                    • ppostadS
                                                        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
                                                    • npostN. Vpoeticparticle without grammatical function, poetic filler in a part of a line that is regularly filled with grammatical particles
                                                        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
                                                    • ppost.S1 S2particle without grammatical function, poetic filler in a part of a line that is regularly filled with a variety of grammatical particles in adjacent lines
                                                        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
                                                    • p Spoeticsentence initial particle with the clear meaning
                                                        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
                                                    • ppostV. Nempty filler particle with no semantic function, used in certain positions in poetry
                                                        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
                                                    • pfiller particle without semantic function

                                                    Existing SW for

                                                    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: