SOUND  聲音

WHAT CAN be HEARD.
NOISENOTEDINRACKETROWHUBBUBRESONANCEREVERBERATION
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The dominant word for any sound produced by any creature or instrument is shēng 聲 and the word can come to refer specifically to the sound produced by the human voice (see VOICE), hence the word can also refer to a song with a melody and also to the tones as making up a melody. See SONG.

2. Yīn 音 is much narrower in application, and more elevated in style, and the word typically applies to sound shaped into music or the like and often viewed as an aesthetic object. 聲成文謂之音。 "When sound makes a pattern it becomes yīn", true enough, but it does remain shēng 聲 also.

3. Xiāo 囂 and xuān 喧 refer primarily to the din of human voices, but these words do have regular extended uses where they refer to any noisy or irritating sound.

4. Xiǎng 響, which primarily means "echo", often comes to refer to any sound without any connotations concerning the irritating nature of the sound.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

ART 1.

聲,單個的音或單種發聲體發出的聲音;聲音總稱。

音,由 “ 聲 ” 而變,即調和、排比五聲而成一定的旋律。

樂,各類樂器合奏而成的和諧樂聲。

響,回應之聲。

Modern Chinese Criteria

聲音

聲響

音響

響聲

聲響

聲息

響動

動靜

籟 (obs) refers to natural sounds.

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 15.44

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 419

532. Inter Sonum et sonitum. Sonus [ Al., sonitus] est quidquid auditur sensibile, sonitus [ Al., sonus] vero confusio [ Al., confusae] vocis tubarum.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

NOISE

fragor is a hollow discordant crashing sound.

strepitus refers to a loud roaring, bawling, shreaking sound.

sonitus refers to a ringing, clinking sound, as of bells.

crepitus refers to the frequent repetition of the same sound.

frangere refers to the breaking to pieces of what is hard.

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 18

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 58

HERNANDEZ 2000 Semantica del Griego Antiguo 35.n147

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 32

MENGZI TONGYI 2002 “孟子”同義詞研究 243

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 4.887

SCHMIDT 1889 Handbuch der lateinischen und griechischen Synonymik 2

36/41/44

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 983

聲,音

1. WL takes she1ng 聲 to refer to the sound produced by man singing, and yi1n 音 the sound of musical instruments. But LY's famous 弦歌之聲 makes it clear that things are not this easy. And HF 鼓鐸之聲 "sound of drums and hand-bells" makes it plain that it is plain wrong. Moreoever, we have

HF 28.02:07 不聽鐘石之聲 "he did not listen to the sound of bells and musical stone instruments".

Thus the traditional rationalisation is highly problematic.

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.248

DIVISIONES 1906 Divisiones quae vulgo dicuntur Aristoteleae 30

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • n : 21
  • n[post-N] : 18
  • NP{N1=N2} : 15
  • vi : 14
  • nadV : 9
  • NP : 4
  • ncpost-V1{NUM}:postadV2 : 4
  • NP{N1&N2} : 3
  • vtoN : 3
  • nab : 3
  • npost-N : 1
  • vadV : 1
  • nadN : 1
  • vi.red : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 10
  • 禮記 : 9
  • 祖堂集 : 9
  • 孟子 : 8
  • 韓非子 : 7
  • 史記 : 7
  • 荀子 : 6
  • 毛詩 : 6
  • 淮南子 : 5
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 4
  • 呂氏春秋 : 4
  • 論衡 : 4
  • 說苑 : 3
  • 臨濟錄 : 3
  • 論語 : 2
  • 鹽鐵論 : 2
  • 百喻經 : 2
  • 楚辭 : 2
  • 記纂淵海 : 1
  • 莊子 : 1
  • 賢愚經 : 1
  • 老子 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1

Words

   shēng OC: qjeŋ MC: ɕiɛŋ 37 Attributions

The dominant word for any sound produced by any creature or instrument is shēng 聲and the word can come to refer specifically to the sound produced by the human voice (see VOICE), hence the word can also refer to a song with a melody and also to the tones as making up a melody. See SONG.

  • nsound of a word> pronunciation
  • n[post-N]N=creaturesgenerally: sound made by any creature
  • nderived(sound>) words;
  • nnegativenoise; din
  • nnoisenoise of any kind, sound of any kind
  • nabmetaphysicalBUDDH: world of sounds and speech
  • ncpost-V1{NUM}:postadV2classifierverbal classifier for the frequencies of utterances/sounds
  • viprocessmake noise, give off a sound
  • vt[oN]provide the sound (of a word)
  • npost-Nsound of N
響 / 嚮   xiǎng OC: qhaŋʔ MC: hi̯ɐŋ xiǎng OC: qhaŋʔ MC: hi̯ɐŋ 19 Attributions

Xiǎng 響, which primarily means "echo", often comes to refer to any sound without any connotations concerning the irritating nature of the sound. Xiǎng 響, which primarily means "echo", often comes to refer to any sound without any connotations concerning the irritating nature of the sound.

  • nZUO: echo, sound
  • viactproduce echoes
  • viresound, echo
  • vtoNfigurativeresound N > hear about (the reputation/fame) of N
  • nadVanalogylike an echo 響應
  • npositiveelevating inspiring sound (provoking resonance in one)
聲音   shēng yīn OC: qjeŋ qrɯm MC: ɕiɛŋ ʔim 15 Attributions
  • NP{N1=N2}music"the sounds of music", the sound of music including instrumental and vocal sound
  • NP{N1=N2}naturalsound of some kind produced by natural phenomena
  • NP{N1=N2}voicesound of the human voice; by extension very occasionally: of ants
   yīn OC: qrɯm MC: ʔim 6 Attributions

Yīn 音 is much narrower in application, and more elevated in style, and the word typically applies to sound shaped into music or the like and often viewed as an aesthetic object. 聲成文謂之音。"When sound makes a pattern it becomes yīn", true enough, but it does remain shēng 聲 also.

  • nshaped sound, especially as part of music; sound of music, music; by extension, poetic, SHI: speech
  • nfigurativeliterary tones, aesthetic mood
   nào OC: rnaaws MC: ɳɣɛu 3 Attributions
  • nabnoise
  • nabfigurativefull of noise > disturbance, chaotic state, trouble, vaxation, noisy activities
  • nadNfull of noise, noisy
音聲   yīn shēng OC: qrɯm qjeŋ MC: ʔim ɕiɛŋ 3 Attributions
  • NP{N1&N2}sound of music and voice
   míng OC: mreŋ MC: mɣaŋ 2 Attributions
  • vigive off a sound (as of a drum etc)
  • vtoNcausativecause to give off a sound> sound, beat (a drum of attack in war)
   zhà OC: prlaaɡs MC: ʈɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • vadVnoisily
   yāo OC: qew MC: ʔiɛu 1 Attribution
  • vito chirp (sound made by locusts)
   jiū OC: tsiw MC: tsɨu 1 Attribution
  • vi.redsound of chirping birds
  • visound of chirping birds; babbling of childs; resounding of bells
   wō OC: qrooɡ MC: ʔɣɔk 1 Attribution
  • vito chuckle; cry; sound of a crow
   huì OC: qhʷeds MC: hei 1 Attribution
  • viactresound; chirp (insects); jingle (bells)
囂 / 囂嚻   xiāo OC: hŋraw MC: hiɛu  OC:  MC:  1 Attribution

Xiāo 囂 and xuān 喧 refer primarily to the din of human voices, but these words do have regular extended uses where they refer to any noisy or irritating sound. Xiāo 囂 and xuān 喧 refer primarily to the din of human voices, but these words do have regular extended uses where they refer to any noisy or irritating sound.

  • nnoise (typically caused by human clamour)
  • vinoisy
   péng OC: braaŋ MC: bɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • vionomatopoeiabang!
   chōng OC: khrluŋ MC: ʈhuŋ 1 Attribution
  • vi.redonomatopoeiatinkle
   tuó OC: thaaɡ MC: thɑk 1 Attribution
  • vionomatopoeia: sound when pounding the earth
   huì OC: qhʷaads MC: hɑi 1 Attribution
  • vimaking the sound of wings; flapping
   qiāng OC: khrooŋ MC: khɣɔŋ 1 Attribution
  • vimake a sound (of feet)
   kēng OC: khreeŋ MC: khɣɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • vigive out a sound; give out a twang (both of metallic instruments like bells and of zithers; sound of clinking stones)
五聲   wǔ shēng MC: nguX syeng OC: ŋaaʔ qjeŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPnonreferentialall sort of tones, tones or music in general
    OC:  MC:  0 Attributions
  • visound of chirping insects
   tún OC: duun MC: duo̝n 0 Attributions
  • vionomatopoeiato groan; to creak
   xuān OC: qhon MC: hi̯ɐn 0 Attributions

Xiāo 囂 and xuān 喧 refer primarily to the din of human voices, but these words do have regular extended uses where they refer to any noisy or irritating sound.

  • nnoise; clamour
   yuě OC: qʷad MC: ʔi̯ɐt 0 Attributions
  • vitinkle (sound of bells)
   bó OC: proowɡ MC: pɣɔk 0 Attributions
  • vadVonomatopoeiawith an angry sound
   yāng OC: qaŋ MC: ʔi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
  • vichime (sound of a bell) (SHI)
   chōng OC: ɡrluŋ MC: ɖuŋ 0 Attributions
  • vi.redonomatopoeiamake sound of ice breaking
  • vitinkle
   qiāng OC: skhaŋ MC: tshi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
  • vitinkle (sound of bells or pendant gems)
   tián OC: diin MC: den 0 Attributions
  • vithe rumbling sound of falling stones
   lín OC: rin MC: lin 0 Attributions
  • vi.redmake a rumbling sound
   qiāng OC: skhaŋ MC: tshi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
  • vitinkle; clang; sing harmoniously
   yōng OC: qoŋ MC: ʔi̯oŋ 0 Attributions
  • vibe harmonious-sounding (bells)
   yǎo OC: lowʔ MC: jiɛu 0 Attributions
  • nsound (of the female pheasant)
啾唧   jiū jí OC: tsiw tsɯɡ MC: tsɨu tsɨk 0 Attributions
  • VPionomatopoeiasound of chirping birds and insects > sound of idle chatting: chirp and chatter
法聲   fǎ shēng OC: pab qjeŋ MC: pi̯ɐp ɕiɛŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: dharma-sound; SANSKRIT dharma-śabda

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: