MODAL PARTICLES  情態虛詞

Grammar [NOTE THAT THE GRAMMATICAL PARTICLES HAVE NOT BEEN FOCUSSED SO FAR IN THE SYSTEM AND NO SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS HAS BEEN APPLIED SO FAR.]
Hypernym

MODAL MODIFIERS -> PARTICLE -> WORD -> SOUND -> HEAR -> PERCEIVE -> AWARE -> ABLE -> HAVE -> RELATION -> FEATURE -> OBJECT -> PRIME -> N/A

Modern Chinese Criteria

LU JIANMING

    Attributions by syntactic funtion

    • ppostadS : 257
    • ppostadN{PRED} : 146
    • npro.adS : 51
    • padV : 36
    • padN.adV : 28
    • ppostadV : 22
    • PPpostadS : 15
    • padS : 11
    • vadS1.post-S2 : 10
    • padNPab{S}.adV : 5
    • ppostadNPab{S}. V{PRED} : 3
    • npostadS : 3
    • padN.adS : 2
    • ppostadS1.adS2 : 2
    • npostadV.adS : 1
    • ppostadNP{PRED}.adS2 : 1
    • padS1.adS2 : 1
    • DELETE : 1

    Attributions by text

    • 荀子 : 206
    • 孟子 : 52
    • 莊子 : 44
    • 說苑 : 40
    • 孝經 : 38
    • 韓非子 : 29
    • 論語 : 28
    • 管子 : 24
    • 春秋穀梁傳 : 22
    • 春秋左傳 : 20
    • 戰國策 : 11
    • 墨子 : 9
    • 臨濟錄 : 8
    • 晏子春秋 : 6
    • 呂氏春秋 : 6
    • 法言 : 6
    • 禮記 : 5
    • 祖堂集 : 5
    • 陸機集十一卷 : 4
    • 百喻經 : 4
    • 韓詩外傳 : 4
    • 阮籍集四卷 : 3
    • 淮南子 : 3
    • 史記 : 3
    • 列子 : 2
    • 太平經 : 2
    • 妙法蓮華經 : 2
    • 漢書 : 1
    • 典論一卷 : 1
    • 新序 : 1
    • 長短經 : 1
    • 鹽鐵論 : 1
    • 中說 : 1
    • 黃帝內經 : 1
    • 法集要頌經 : 1
    • 六祖壇經 : 1

    Words

       yě OC: lalʔ MC: jɣɛ 368 Attributions
    • ppostadN{PRED}classificationis to be classified as N
    • ppostadN{PRED}identificationbe identical with N
    • ppostadSjudgementalmarks a judgmenal non-narrative verbal sentence, often as being basic
    • ppostadSgeneralmarks the generality of an imperative as being not limited to a certain occasion or time
    • ppostadSimperativesentence final particle in imperative or injunctive sentences
    • ppostadSdescriptivefinal particle marking non-narrative judgemental descriptive statements
    • ppostadSnarrative.conclusionmarker of a conclusion of a narrative.
    • ppostadSperfectivesentence final indicating perfective (like 矣, usually co-ocurring with 已)
    • ppostadSalternativemarker of second of two alternative judgmental questions
    • ppostadSquestionmarks a judgmental question sentence 何謂也What does this mean?
    • ppostadSS=descriptive翕如也 ”is in unison“ sentence final particle after descriptive non-narrative sentences
    • ppostadSexplanatorymarking a judgment explanatory of what precedes
    • ppostadSnominalisernominalising final particle
    • ppostadSreasonit is/was because
    • npostadV.adSsubordinate adverbial verb phrase marker
    • ppostadS1.adS2conditionalfactual, not narrative: if it is a fact that, if it is true that
    • ppostadS1.adS2temporalWhen
    • ppostadNPab{S}. V{PRED}temporalmarking temporal subordinate clause: When
    • ppostadNP{PRED}.adS2counterfactualcounterfactual conditional with a nominal predicate subordinate clause
    • ppostadSmarker of sentential complements, which are typically nominalised by 之/其
    • ppostadNP{PRED}.adS2causal: marking causal subordinate clause: Since
    • ppostadSclassificationit is a case of S, it means that S
       fú OC: ba MC: bi̯o 53 Attributions
    • npro.adS"Now,", "In fact," introducing new subject for the discourse, and introducing non-narrative theoretical discourse.
    • padSrhetorical questionparticle introducing rhetorical questions 夫何
       fán OC: blom MC: bi̯ɐm 36 Attributions
    • padN.adVV=non-narrativespeaking of N in principle, V can be said of it (where V is generally or typically untensed and a non-narrative generic characterisation, often of all members of a group)
    • padNPab{S}.adVtopic marker with a nominalised sentence as a topic
    • padN.adSSpeaking in general of N, S
    • padS1.adS2as a matter of principle
       dú OC: dooɡ MC: duk 35 Attributions
    • padVGerman: "etwa"> marker of rhetorical questions inviting or suggesting/presupposing a negative answer, derived from the meaning "as the only person"
       yǐ OC: ɢɯʔ MC: ɦɨ 22 Attributions
    • ppostadSimperativemarker of (probably mild) imperative sentences
    • ppostadSS=apodosissentence-final particle after apodosis of conditional
    • ppostadV.+N{SUBJ}modal particle inside sentence
       hū OC: ɢaa MC: ɦuo̝ 18 Attributions
    • ppostadVcontinuative (See A.C. Graham's article on this.)
       zé OC: skɯɯɡ MC: tsək 10 Attributions
    • vadS1.post-S2Why! But surely! Surely!
    與 / 歟   yú OC: k-la MC: ji̯ɤ yú OC: k-la MC: ji̯ɤ 10 Attributions
    • ppostadStentativesentence final particle indicating a tentative modality: perhaps?
    乎哉   hū zāi OC: ɢaa skɯɯ MC: ɦuo̝ tsəi 8 Attributions
    • PPpostadSexpected answer: no!marker of rhetorical questions
       qí OC: ɡɯ MC: gɨ 6 Attributions
    • padVOBI: one of the most controversial modal particles in OBI
    • padSrhetorical questionformative of rhetorical questions
    • DELETErhetorical questionmodal particle marking rhetorical questions
    • padVrhetoricalquestionmarker of a rhetorical question
       fǒu OC: pɯʔ MC: pɨu 6 Attributions
    • ppostadSquestioninterrogative particle: "or not"
       gài OC: kaabs MC: kɑi 5 Attributions
    • padSsemantically weak marker of a new beginning within a given non-narrative abstract discourse, often a tentative summarising remark
    • padStentativeApparently 蓋聞 marks a tentative report on what one has heard but does not necessarily believe
       yǐ OC: k-lɯʔ MC: jɨ 4 Attributions
    • ppostadVintensitive imperative marker, "!!"
    • ppostadVquestion
    也已   yě yǐ OC: lalʔ k-lɯʔ MC: jɣɛ jɨ 4 Attributions
    • PPpostadSassertive combination of final particles
       gù OC: kaas MC: kuo̝ 3 Attributions
    • npostadSmarker of constative theoretical modality
       nǐ OC: m-lɯʔ MC: ɳɨ 1 Attribution
    • ppostadN{PRED}what about?modal particle: a how about N? (probably corresponding to Modern Mandarin 呢)
       zāi OC: skɯɯ MC: tsəi 1 Attribution
    • ppostadSmarker of the imperative modality.
    也哉   yě zāi OC: lalʔ skɯɯ MC: jɣɛ tsəi 1 Attribution
    • PPpostadSexpected answer: no!rhetorical question particle: surely not!
    否乎   fǒu hū OC: pɯʔ ɢaa MC: pɨu ɦuo̝ 1 Attribution

    Interrogative particle [DS]

    • ppostadSquestionor is that not so?, n'est-ce pas
    也已矣   yě yǐ yǐ OC: lalʔ k-lɯʔ ɢɯʔ MC: jɣɛ jɨ ɦɨ 1 Attribution
    • PPpostadSemphatic post-sentential cluster {note that the 也 goes with the sentences that precedes, and the 已矣 is close to 而已矣 which has the sentence that precedes as its scope}
       wèi OC: ɢʷals MC: ɦiɛ 1 Attribution
    • ppostadSmarker of rhetorical questions
    也邪   yě yé  MC: dzyoX yae  OC: lalʔ k-la  1 Attribution
    • PPpostadSrhetorical questionforms strong rhetorical questions, expected answer: NO!
       zhān OC: tjan MC: tɕiɛn 0 Attributions
    • ppostadSsentence final particle of doubtful exact function, said to be equivalent to 之焉
       lái OC: m-rɯɯ MC: ləi 0 Attributions
    • padSexclamatorycommunicative modal particle (see XIE ZHIBIN 謝質彬 2011: 173ff)
    • padVcommunicative modal particle (see XIE ZHIBIN 謝質彬 2011: 173ff)

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: