EVEN  

SURPRISINGLY, EVEN-IF one would NOT have GUESSED, ALSO.
SURPRISINGLYUNEXPECTEDLYPARADOXICALLY
Kind Of

SURPRISED

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current word to make explicitly concessive nominals is suī 雖.

2. E@r 而 is restricted to subordinate clauses, and the word stresses the subjective incongruousness, thus coming close to being a counterfactual "even".

3. Yóu 猶 stresses the objective unlikeliness of the subject being characterised by the predicate.

NB: Lián 連 is post-Buddhist (MING)

Modern Chinese Criteria

甚或

甚至

Cannot seem to find more synonyms.

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN. V : 16
  • padV.postN{SUBJ}:adV : 15
  • padV.postN{SUBJ}:postS : 8
  • padV : 6
  • vadV{PRED}.postN{SUBJ}:adS : 6
  • PPadV : 4
  • PPadV.postN:adS : 3
  • VPt N. V : 2
  • VPt+N.adV : 2
  • padS.adV[0] : 1
  • padV1.postV2 : 1
  • vt0oS1.adS2 : 1
  • padS1.post-S2 : 1
  • padN.adV : 1
  • vadV : 1
  • padN.adS : 1
  • vt+N.adV : 1

Attributions by text

  • 呂氏春秋 : 8
  • 論語 : 7
  • 韓非子 : 7
  • 孟子 : 6
  • 荀子 : 5
  • 莊子 : 5
  • 墨子 : 4
  • 春秋左傳 : 4
  • 列子 : 3
  • 論衡 : 3
  • 史記 : 3
  • 百喻經 : 2
  • 六祖壇經 : 2
  • 尚書 : 2
  • 公孫龍子 : 1
  • 禮記 : 1
  • 孝經 : 1
  • 說苑 : 1
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • 老子 : 1
  • 法集要頌經 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1

Words

   suī OC: sqlul MC: si 18 Attributions

The current word to make explicitly concessive nominals is suī 雖.

  • vtoN. Veven : 雖我亦將非之。
  • vt0oS1.adS2 factive, assuming the truth of S1: even though
  • padS.adV[0]雖陷刑戮可 "it is possible even that he suffers physical punishment" it V-s even that S
   yóu OC: k-lu MC: jɨu 15 Attributions

Yóu 猶 stresses the objective unlikeliness of the subject being characterised by the predicate.

  • padV.postN{SUBJ}even N
  • padV.postN{SUBJ}:adVeven also; even (猶。。。何況)
   shàng OC: djaŋs MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ 11 Attributions
  • padS1.post-S2even under conditions S
  • padV.postN{SUBJ}:postSeven (an N)
  • padVeven
   ér OC: njɯ MC: ȵɨ 6 Attributions

E@r 而 is restricted to subordinate clauses, and the word stresses the subjective incongruousness, thus coming close to being a counterfactual "even".

  • vadV{PRED}.postN{SUBJ}:adS(if) even/also the preceding N (in subordinate clauses) 管氏而知禮,孰不知禮?
且猶   qiě yóu OC: k-lu MC: tshɣɛ jɨu 4 Attributions
  • PPadVintensitiveeven (stressed)
猶若   yóu ruò OC: k-lu njaɡ MC: jɨu ȵi̯ɐk 3 Attributions
  • PPadV.postN:adSeven (猶若。。。況)
   qiě OC:  MC: tshɣɛ 2 Attributions
  • padN.adVeven
  • padVt.postN{OBJ}even
  • padV1.postV2even if V2ing to V1
   nǎi OC: nɯɯʔ MC: nəi 2 Attributions
  • padVeven
雖至   suī zhì MC: swij tsyijH OC: sqlul kljiɡs 2 Attributions
  • VPt N. Veven when it comes to the N they V
   zēng  MC:  OC: tsɯɯŋ  2 Attributions
  • padVeven; curiously enough even (typically with negatives)
   jí OC: tsɯɡ MC: tsɨk 1 Attribution
  • vt+N.adVeven
   yǒu OC: ɢʷɯʔ MC: ɦɨu 1 Attribution
  • vadVloan for 又: even more Vi
假使   jiǎ shǐ OC: kraaʔ srɯʔ MC: kɣɛ ʂɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPt+N.adVeven in the case of N...
即是   jí shì OC: tsɯɡ ɡljeʔ MC: tsɨk dʑiɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPt+N.adVeven
   zì OC: sblids MC: dzi 1 Attribution
  • padN.adSeven N...
   lián OC: b-ren MC: liɛn 0 Attributions

NB: Lián 連 is post-Buddhist (MING)

        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • VPt N. Veven when it comes to the N they V

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: