ILLNESS  疾病

TYPICALLY TEMPORARY DEFECT of the BODY OR MIND of HUMANS OR of the BODY of ANIMALS.
DISEASESICKNESSDISEASEAILMENTCOMPLAINTDISORDERMALADYAFFLICTIONINDISPOSITIONILL HEALTHPOOR HEALTHINFIRMITYINFECTIONVIRUSINFORMAL BUG
Old Chinese Criteria

1. From Warring States onwards the most current general word for illness was bìng 病, but in earlier times the word referred even more generally to troubles and difficulties of many kinds. This archaic usage did continue into later usage. When used specifically, bìng 病 refers to a lasting long-term medical condition. Interestingly, mental/emotional conditions tend to be bìng 病, perhaps because they are taken to be lasting and not acute.

2. Jí 疾 is the oldest general word for illness, from OBI times onwards, and often this word continues to be used in this generalised way. But sometimes the word comes to refer more specifically to an acute short-term medical condition, adjectivally in jí bìng 疾病, and especially a change in medical condition, that can be very serious but is not normally construed as chronic. (Seasonal epidemiological conditions are also jí 疾.)

3. Yàng 恙 is largely restricted to the common idiomatic formula wú yàng 無恙 "be in good health" and sometimes yǒu yàng 有恙 "have medical problems".

4. Lì 癘 often refers to pest and the like, and comes to refer to any very serious disease. For specific meanings see also ILLNESSES.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

HUMAN BODY 1.

疾,出現較早,指急病和外傷,引申指傳染病、輕病、傷殘之病、廢疾;上古是疾病的通稱。

病,產生於春秋末年,本義是困苦,引申多指內病、重病、慢性病,漢以後成為疾病的總稱。

痾,鬼神所降的災禍,引申為疾病,有神秘色彩,專稱不可知、奇異的病。

恙,神鬼降災而使人遭受的包括疾病的各種凶咎,多用於問候語;引申為疾病義,多指小病小災。

2. 疢,因抑鬱憂傷而致的熱病。

疹,主要為七情抑鬱所生體內之病,範圍廣於疢。

瘵,本指 ?? 羸瘦弱一類的疾病;南宋時又指一種肺病。

瘼,本為憂苦義,引申指結核病。

3. 痼,久難治愈的疾病,多作形容詞。

疚,生了多時的慢性病。

癈,不能任事的痼疾。

Modern Chinese Criteria

疾病

病症

病魔

病痛

毛病

疾患

癥候

二豎

採薪之憂

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 4.84

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

ILLNESS

aeger is the general term for any mental or physical state of ill health.

aegrotus indicates physical bad health in humans.

morbidus indicates physical bad health primarily in animals.

morbus views sickness as an external factor or phenomenon.

valetudo as a (typically subjective) state of health of a person.

invaletudo refers to a slight indisposition.

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 84

Hong Huazhi 1996 雙、兩釋异 Shuang, liang shiyi 杭州大學學報 Hangzhou daxue xuebao

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum 24

AEGROTATIO

PODAGRA

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 68

MAUTHNER WP 1924 Woerterbuch der Philosophie. Neue Beitraege zu einer Kritik der Sprache II.239

Mel'cuk 1984 Tolkovo-kombinatornyj slovar' sovremmenogo russkogo jazyka. Explanatory Combinatorial Dictionary of Modern Russian 887

Mel'cuk I Dictionnaire explicatif et combinatoire du francais contemporain, vol. I 121

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 279/331

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 3.290

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 4.1184

KRANKHEIT

SCHMIDT 1889 Handbuch der lateinischen und griechischen Synonymik 80

STAIGER 2003 Das grosse China-Lexikon 405

WANG TONGWEI 2010 "三國志"同義詞及其歷史演變 187-222

Wang Youbu 1983 古漢語同義詞辨析舉例 Gu Hanyu tong yi ci bianxi julie 辭書研究 Ci shu yanjiu

WANG FENGYANG 1993 古辭辨 Gu ci bian 136

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 753

痁,痎

1.

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 753

疾,病

1. WL 二字同義. WL rightly rejects the traditional opinion that bi4ng 病 is more serious than ji2 疾 by pointing out that ji2 疾 can certainly be mortal. In fact, the main difference is that bi4ng 病 primarily refers to a lasting medical condition, whereas ji2 疾 refers to an acute medical condition.

Now it is quite true that there are instances where the two words seem to be used interchangeably, as in

HF 22.21:01; jishi 435; jiaozhu 243f; shiping 757

張譴相韓, Zha1ng Qia3n was prime minister in Ha2n.

病將死。 He was ill and was about to die.

公乘無正懷三十金 Go1ngche2ng Wu2zhe4ng took along thirty cash

而問其疾。 and paid him a visit on account of his current state of sickness.

ZHANG GANG 1997 中醫百病名源考 Zhongyi baibing mingyuan kao

HSU 2010 Pulse Diagnosis in Early Chinese Medicine 392

DE VAAN 2008 Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the Other Italic Languages

aeger 'ill, sick' [adj. o/a] (P1.+)

Derivatives: aegrOtus 'sick, diseased' (P1.+), aegrotare (P1.+) 'to be sick'; aegrere

'to be sick' (Lucr.), aegrescere 'to become sick' (Lucr.+); aegrimonia 'mental

distress' (P1.+); aegritudo 'illness, grief (PI.+).

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 497

HOROWITZ 2005 New Dictiornary of the History of Ideas, 6 vols.

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • nab : 77
  • vi : 45
  • VPi : 20
  • NPab : 8
  • v[adN] : 7
  • vadV : 6
  • NPab{N1=N2} : 5
  • vadN : 5
  • NP[adN] : 4
  • n[adN] : 4
  • vtoN : 4
  • nab.post-V{NUM} : 2
  • nab.pr : 2
  • NP : 1
  • VP[adN] : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 52
  • 韓非子 : 27
  • 論語 : 14
  • 管子 : 12
  • 百喻經 : 12
  • 孟子 : 12
  • 說苑 : 7
  • 呂氏春秋 : 7
  • 論衡 : 7
  • 史記 : 6
  • 戰國策 : 5
  • 黃帝內經 : 4
  • 法集要頌經 : 4
  • 荀子 : 3
  • 祖堂集 : 3
  • 法句經 : 3
  • 墨子 : 2
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 2
  • 莊子 : 2
  • 韓詩外傳 : 2
  • 禮記 : 1
  • 漢書 : 1
  • 賢愚經 : 1
  • 孝經 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1

Words

   jí OC: dzid MC: dzit 69 Attributions

Jí 疾 is the oldest general word for illness and sometimes continues to be used in this generalised way, but the word often came to refer more specifically to an acute short-term medical condition, and especially a change in medical condition, that can be very serious but is not normally construed as chronic.

  • v[adN]N=humthe sick
  • nab.post-V{NUM}eventserious problems, acute troubles
  • nabstativeOBI 5: acute sickness; current state of sickness; also: xīn jí 心疾 "indisposition/illness of the heart/mind"; sickness 斯疾 temporary indisposition; falling sick
  • nabslightindisposition
  • vadNOBI: acutely sick; aching (疾首)
  • vadVof an (unspecified) acute disease; sometimes generally: of a natural disease
  • vigradedsuffer acute sickness 疾甚
  • vicontinuousbe disease-ridden
  • vtoNrelationalbe sick in, suffer a disease, have an ailment in
  • nabfigurative"pain in the neck"; unhealthy state (of a country etc)
  • nabnonreferentialabstract: illness
   bìng OC: bɢraŋs MC: bɣaŋ 59 Attributions

From Warring States onwards the most current general word for illness was bìng 病, but in earlier times the word referred even more generally to troubles and difficulties of many kinds. This archaic usage did continue into later usage. When used specifically, bìng 病 refers to a lasting long-term medical condition.

  • n[adN]ill person
  • nab.prIllness (personified??)
  • nabstativeserious lasting disease; sometimes generalised: natural disease, sickness
  • vadNgradedsick 甚病之人
  • vadVbecause of a natural illness
  • vibe seriously sick or ill; (of states etc) be disabled [move those examples to fig]
  • vichangefall seriously ill; (of an acute illness:) become a serious irremediable medical state
  • vtoNstativebe sick with respect to; suffer from the disease N
疾病   jí bìng OC: dzid bɢraŋs MC: dzit bɣaŋ 25 Attributions
  • NP[adN]nonreferentialthe sick; those who suffer from any disease
  • NPsubject=pluralthose who suffer from an acute illness
  • NPab{N1=N2}stativean acute illness
  • VPisuffer from a serious illness
   yàng OC: k-laŋs MC: ji̯ɐŋ 8 Attributions

Yàng 恙 is restricted to the idiomatic formula wú yàng 無恙 "be in good health" and sometimes yǒu yàng 有恙 "have medical problems".

  • nabstativemalady, heaven-sent disease
   shān OC: qhljem MC: ɕiɛm 2 Attributions
  • nabstativeintermittent fever that breaks out once every few days
   dān OC: taan MC: tɑn 2 Attributions
  • nabstativedisease[That is probably a specific illness][CA]
  • vibe ill with boils
   fēng OC: plum MC: puŋ 2 Attributions
  • nabstativecold; influenza
疾疢   jí chèn OC: dzid thins MC: dzit ʈhin 2 Attributions
  • NPabstativeillness(es) of any kind
著風   zhuó fēng OC: ɡ-laɡ plum MC: ɖi̯ɐk puŋ 2 Attributions
  • VPisuffer from a cold, have a cold
   è OC: qaaɡ MC: ʔɑk 2 Attributions
  • nabstatebad illness
   huàn OC: ɢroons MC: ɦɣan 1 Attribution
  • vtoNsuffer an illness in; be faced with a disease affecting N
   yōu OC: qu MC: ʔɨu 1 Attribution
  • nabstativenot too serious illness
   zì OC: sɡleɡs MC: dziɛ 1 Attribution
  • vibe ill
   jiù OC: klɯs MC: kɨu 1 Attribution
  • nabfeaturechronic illness
   nǜe OC: ŋawɡ MC: ŋi̯ɐk 1 Attribution
  • nabstativefever, ague
   lóng OC: ɡ-ruum MC: luŋ 1 Attribution
  • nabstativeretention of urine???
  • vadNdecrepit, infirm
  • vichangecome to suffer weakened health
   lì OC: b-rads MC: liɛi 1 Attribution

Lì 癘 comes to refer to any very serious disease. See also ILLNESSES

  • nabstativesickness; pest
已病   yǐ bìng OC: k-lɯʔ bɢraŋs MC: jɨ bɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VP[adN]nonreferentialpersons who are already sick
廢疾   fèi jí OC: pods dzid MC: pi̯ɐi dzit 1 Attribution
  • NPabfeaturemortal disease; disease that is about to kill one
得病   dé bìng OC: tɯɯɡ bɢraŋs MC: tək bɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • vieventfall ill
惱病   nǎo bìng OC: nuuʔ bɢraŋs MC: nɑu bɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabeventdisease
未病   wèi bìng OC: mɯds bɢraŋs MC: mɨi bɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • NP[adN]persons who are not yet sick
病患   bìng huàn OC: bɢraŋs ɢroons MC: bɣaŋ ɦɣan 1 Attribution
  • NPabstativeillness suffered
疾患   jí huàn OC: dzid ɢroons MC: dzit ɦɣan 1 Attribution
  • NPabbe struck by diseases
疾疚   jí jiù OC: dzid klɯs MC: dzit kɨu 1 Attribution
  • NPabfeaturedisease of any kind
疵癘   cī lì OC: dze b-rads MC: dziɛ liɛi 1 Attribution
  • VPisuffer any kind of illness
癃病   lóng bìng OC: ɡ-ruum bɢraŋs MC: luŋ bɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPichangefall seriously ill
疾養   jí yǎng MC: dzit yangX OC: dzid laŋʔ 1 Attribution
  • NPab= 疾癢: pain, itching and similar troublesome body conditions in general
   dān OC: taan MC: tɑn 0 Attributions
  • vichangesuffer a disease
   rè OC: ŋjed MC: ȵiɛt 0 Attributions
  • nabstativefever
   chèn OC: thins MC: ʈhin 0 Attributions
  • nabstativeoccasionally used as a general term for disease. (See ILLNESS, KINDS)
    OC:  MC:  0 Attributions
  • nabstativepost-Han: illness
   zhěn OC: kljɯnʔ MC: tɕin 0 Attributions
       jiē OC: krɯɯ MC: kɣɛi 0 Attributions
    • nabstativeintermittent fever that breaks out every day
       gù OC: kaaɡs MC: kuo̝ 0 Attributions
    • nabstativechronic illness which it is impossible to get rid of, persistent chronic disease
       diān OC: tiin MC: ten 0 Attributions
    • nabstativeillness; madness
       gǔ OC: kaaʔ MC: kuo̝ 0 Attributions
    • nabfeatureSee ZHANG GANG 1997: 83
    居病   jū bìng OC: ka bɢraŋs MC: ki̯ɤ bɣaŋ 0 Attributions
    • VPicontinuousbe ill
    心疾   xīn jí OC: slɯm dzid MC: sim dzit 0 Attributions
    • NPabprocessheart attack; (mental affliction???)
       hán OC: ɡaan MC: ɦɑn 0 Attributions
    • nabfeaturecommon cold
       láo OC: raaw MC: lɑu 0 Attributions
    • nabfeature=癆 illness

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: