BAD  惡/劣

The FEATURE of being NOT EXCELLENT OR GOOD.
SUBSTANDARDPOORINFERIORSECOND-RATESECOND-CLASSUNSATISFACTORYINADEQUATEUNACCEPTABLENOT UP TO SCRATCHNOT UP TO PARDEFICIENTIMPERFECTDEFECTIVEFAULTYSHODDYAMATEURISHCARELESSNEGLIGENTMISERABLESORRYINCOMPETENTINEPTINEXPERTINEFFECTUALAWFULATROCIOUSAPPALLINGEXECRABLEDEPLORABLETERRIBLEABYSMALGODAWFULCRUMMYROTTENPATHETICUSELESSWOEFULBUMLOUSYNOT UP TO SNUFFWICKEDEVILSINFULIMMORALMORALLY WRONGCORRUPTBASEBLACK-HEARTEDREPROBATEAMORALCRIMINALVILLAINOUSNEFARIOUSINIQUITOUSDISHONESTDISHONORABLEUNSCRUPULOUSUNPRINCIPLEDCROOKEDDIRTYDASTARDLY
Old Chinese Criteria

[ABSOLUTE/GRADED]

[[COMMON/RARE]]

[ELEVATED/INFORMAL]

[GENERAL/SPECIFIC]

[HIGH-DEGREE/LOW-DEGREE]

1. The most general word for what is inferior and not commendable, morally, aesthetically or otherwise, is è 惡 (ant. měi 美 "commendable"), but this word is also used to refer more specifically to wickedness. See WICKED

[GENERAL]

2. Xià 下 (ant. shàng 上 "superior") is a colourless general way of referring to something being inferior to something else (which may or may not be specified) in any sense.

[GRADED]

3. Liè 劣 (ant. yōu 優 "of higher quality") refers quite generally to inferior quality, but the word is not very frequent in pre-Buddhist Chinese.

[HIGH-DEGREE]; [[RARE]]

4. Nú 駑 and the rarer tái 駘 (all ant. jùn 駿 "superior horse") refer specifically to inferior horses, and in a rather pictoresque metaphorical way these terms are sometimes used to refer to men of inferior quality.

[ELEVATED], [SUBJ=HUMAN]; [[RARE]]

Modern Chinese Criteria

不好

不良

不行

不妙

不善

差勁

稀鬆

稀糟

糟糕

蹩腳

塗鴉

窳劣

二五眼

差點兒

驢鳴狗

不像話

不成話

要不得

一團糟

不足取

一無可取

一塌糊塗

看不上眼

不堪設想

惡劣

低劣

粗劣

卑劣

拙劣

蕪劣

猥劣

下劣

猥陋

猥鄙

卑下

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 16.72

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

WORSE

deterior refers to something that has degenerated from a superior good state.

peior refers to something that has been bad but

has become worse.

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

MALITIA/MALUM

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 3.284

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 5.653

MALUM

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 188

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.229.188

CHETIF.MAUVAIS

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.274

DIVISIONES 1906 Divisiones quae vulgo dicuntur Aristoteleae B 3/6/57

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • NP : 135
  • vadN : 31
  • NP{PRED} : 28
  • VPtoN : 22
  • nab : 16
  • vi : 13
  • VPi : 12
  • v[adN] : 6
  • VPt+V[0] : 5
  • n : 5
  • v[adN1.]post-N2 : 3
  • VPadN : 3
  • VPt+NPab{S} : 2
  • NPadN : 2
  • nab[.post-N] : 2
  • vtoN : 2
  • vt+prep+N : 2
  • vadV : 2
  • NPab : 2
  • vt(o.N1adN2) : 1
  • VP[adNab] : 1
  • v[adV] : 1
  • VP(adN) : 1
  • VPt(oN) : 1
  • NPab{vt{NEG}+V(.adN)} : 1

Attributions by text

  • 荀子 : 66
  • 論語 : 35
  • 春秋左傳 : 24
  • 禮記 : 21
  • 韓非子 : 20
  • 論衡 : 18
  • 說苑 : 17
  • 莊子 : 12
  • 孟子 : 12
  • 法言 : 12
  • 呂氏春秋 : 10
  • 管子 : 10
  • 韓詩外傳 : 9
  • 百喻經 : 7
  • 賢愚經 : 4
  • 毛詩 : 3
  • 淮南子 : 3
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 2
  • 戰國策 : 2
  • 成之聞之 : 2
  • 史記 : 2
  • 公孫龍子 : 1
  • 太平經 : 1
  • 列子 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • 孝經 : 1
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1

Words

小人   xiǎo rén OC: smewʔ njin MC: siɛu ȵin 169 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentialpetty person
  • NPadNmoralpetty, characteristic of a petty person
  • VPimoralbe petty
  • NP{PRED}be a despicable petty person
  • NPindefinitepetty people
  • NPindefinitepetty person
  • NPdefinitethe petty people (often quantified: all)
  • NPabconceptthe concept of a petty man; being a petty man
   è OC: qaaɡ MC: ʔɑk 38 Attributions

The most general word for what is inferior and not commendable, morally, aesthetically or otherwise, is è 惡 (ant. měi 美 "commendable"), but this word is also used to refer more specifically to wickedness. See WICKED [GENERAL]

  • nabfeaturebad image; bad points, dishonourable points 三惡
  • vadNbad; dishonourable; offensive (words); of bad quality (clothes); malignant (of disease); foul (of smells)
  • vadV(eat) badly, nastily, (smell) foul; dishonourably
  • v[adN]nonreferentialwhat is bad; what is undesirable
  • nabconceptbadness
  • v[adN1.]post-N2bad points of N2
  • vtoNcausativederived: cast a bad light on N, make N look bad
  • nab[.post-N]one's own bad points; one's own bad image
不如   bù rú OC: pɯʔ nja MC: pi̯ut ȵi̯ɤ 31 Attributions
  • VPt(oN)be not as good as the contextually determinate N; be lesser than
  • VPt+NPab{S}stativebe inferior to S
  • VPt+V[0]be not as good as V-ing
  • VPtoNstativebe inferior to; be lesser than; be not as good as
  • vt(o.N1adN2)be inferior the contextually determinate N2 of the contextually determinate N1
   xià OC: ɢraaʔ MC: ɦɣɛ 14 Attributions

Xià 下 (ant. shàng 上 "superior") is a colourless general way of referring to something being inferior to something else (which may or may not be specified) in any sense. [GRADED]

  • v[adN]N=thingwhat is of inferior quality
  • vadNof lower quality, of the lower kind; inferior
  • vadNsocialon an inferior level of culture
  • vibe of inferior quality, be of a lower kind; be inferior; be of inferior moral mettle
  • vtoNstativebe inferior to N
  • v[adN1.]post-N2the worst example
   nú OC: naa MC: nuo̝ 10 Attributions

Nú 駑 and the rarer tái 駘 (all ant. jùn 駿 "superior horse") refer specifically to inferior horses, and in a rather pictoresque metaphorical way these terms are sometimes used to refer to men of inferior quality.

  • vadNof horses (and sometimes men): weak, of bad quality, not very useful
  • viof horses (and sometimes men): be of inferior quality; not very useful
   cì OC: snʰis MC: tshi 8 Attributions
  • nsubjectthat which is the next best
  • vibe inferior; be the next best
不良   bù liáng OC: pɯʔ ɡ-raŋ MC: pi̯ut li̯ɐŋ 6 Attributions
  • VP(adN)litotesthe contextually determinate thing that is not good> bad
  • VPadNlitotesbad
  • VPilitotesbe bad
   liè OC: ɡ-rod MC: liɛt 3 Attributions

Liè 劣 (ant. yōu 優 "of higher quality") refers quite generally to inferior quality, but the word is not very frequent in pre-Buddhist Chinese. [HIGH-DEGREE]; [[RARE]]

  • vadNof lesser quality
  • vibe of minor moral quality
   shèn OC: ɡljums MC: dʑim 3 Attributions
  • vt+prep+Nbe worse than
  • v[adV]be exceedingly (bad)
   duǎn OC: toonʔ MC: tʷɑn 3 Attributions
  • vigradedbe inferior when relevantly compared with other things
  • vadNtrvial; deficient, less than interesting
不恭   bù gōng OC: pɯʔ koŋ MC: pi̯ut ki̯oŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPab{vt{NEG}+V(.adN)}lack of dignity
  • VPibe undignified; show lack of dignity
弊惡   bì è OC: beds qaaɡ MC: biɛi ʔɑk 2 Attributions
  • VPadNold and wicked > damned
  • VPibe quite bad
   huài OC: ɡruuls MC: ɦɣɛi 1 Attribution
  • vadNdeleterious
   zé OC: ɡrlaaɡ MC: ɖɣɛk 1 Attribution
  • vibe inappropriate, offensive, outrageous
   bài OC: braads MC: bɣɛi 1 Attribution
  • vadNfigurativerotten> depraved, good-for-nothing
   xié OC: sɢlja MC: zɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • vadNof bad quality, of bad effect on people 邪氣
不令   bù lìng OC: pɯʔ ɡ-reŋ MC: pi̯ut liɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPadNformal: of the bad sort
不腆   bù tiǎn OC: pɯʔ thɯɯnʔ MC: pi̯ut then 1 Attribution
  • VPadNof bad quality
不韙   bù wěi OC: pɯʔ ɢulʔ MC: pi̯ut ɦɨi 1 Attribution
  • VP[adNab]unjust practices; bad deeds
滋甚   zī shèn OC: tsɯ ɡljumʔ MC: tsɨ dʑim 1 Attribution
  • VPimake things worse
小人者   xiǎo rén zhě OC: smewʔ njin kljaʔ MC: siɛu ȵin tɕɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPmoralthe petty person
駑散   nú sǎn MC: nu sanX OC: naa sqaanʔ 1 Attribution
  • VPibe inept, be good-for-nothing
   yà OC: qraaɡs MC: ʔɣɛ 0 Attributions
  • vadNinferior; lower (rank); second in rank; junior
  • vibe inferior (SHU)
欿   kǎn OC: ɡloomʔ MC: ɦəm 0 Attributions
  • vibe inferior, wanting (MENG) 欿然
   tái OC: lɯɯ MC: dəi 0 Attributions

Nú 駑 and the rarer tái 駘 (all ant. jùn 駿 "superior horse") refer specifically to inferior horses, and in a rather pictoresque metaphorical way these terms are sometimes used to refer to men of inferior quality. [ELEVATED], [SUBJ=HUMAN]; [[RARE]]

  • ninferior creature, inferior horse; sometimes: inferior person (for use in the bureaucracy)
不恕   bù shù OC: pɯʔ hnjas MC: pi̯ut ɕi̯ɤ 0 Attributions
  • VPpostadVmindlessnessly of the concerns of others
   xiū OC: sqlɯw MC: sɨu 0 Attributions
  • VPadNuncivilised; French: inculte
  • vttoN1.+N2reflect on N1 with respect to N2
為下   wéi xià OC: ɢʷal ɢraaʔ MC: ɦiɛ ɦɣɛ 0 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentialsomeone who is inferior
   fēi OC: pɯl MC: pɨi 0 Attributions
  • VPibe wrong; be unacceptable (DCD 1.780); wrong and irregular

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: