BELIEVE  認為以為

ATTITUDE IN-RELATION-TO a THINK:thought to the effect that this THOUGHT is TRUE.
THINKBE OF THE OPINION THATHAVE AN IDEA THATIMAGINESUSPECTSUPPOSEASSUMEPRESUMETAKE ITCONJECTURESURMISECONCLUDEDEDUCEUNDERSTANDBE GIVEN TO UNDERSTANDGATHERFANCYGUESSDARE SAYRECKONFIGUREWEEN
Old Chinese Criteria

[BASIC/MARGINAL]

[EXPLICIT/IMPLICIT]

[GENERAL/SPECIFIC]

[FALSE/TRUE]

[FUTURE/PAST/PRESENT]

[HIGH-DEGREE/LOW-DEGREE]

[IDIOM/WORD]

[OBJECTIVE/SUBJECTIVE]

1. Yǐ wéi 以為 and occasionally also yǐ 以 alone refer to a belief that is typically held to be less than reliable.

[EXPLICIT], [GENERAL], [SUBJECTIVE], [VERB]

2. Yǐ 以 alone sometimes refers to a belief that is typically held to be less than reliable, and seems simply short for yǐ wéi 以為.

3. Wèi 謂 typically refers to a mistaken belief.

[EXPLICIT], [FALSE!], [SUBJECTIVE], [VERB]

4. Yì 意 refers to guesswork, anticipation and the like. See GUESS

[FUTURE]

5. Xìn 信 is sometimes used to refer to conviction, to someone trusting something to be the case or being confident that something is the case.

[HIGH-DEGREE], [IMPLICIT], [VERB]

6. Shì yóu 視猶 "look upon as" is occasionally used to refer to a belief attached to an attitude.

[IDIOM], [IMPLICIT], [SUBJECTIVE], [VERB]

7. Mín xīn 民心 is public opinion.

[IDIOM], [IMPLICIT], [NOUN], [SPECIFIC]

8. Jiàn 見 "view" is very occasionally used figuratively to refer to an opinion.

[IMPLICIT], [MARGINAL], [NOUN]; [[RARE]]

Modern Chinese Criteria

認為

以為

覺得

作如是觀

相信

憑信

置信

確信

堅信

輕信

聽信

耳食

見風是雨

貴耳賤目

以耳代目

當真

認真 (with stress on the second syllable) consider as true.

信以為真

見解

見識

見地

看法

意見

眼光

觀點

宏論

主見

主心骨 refers to a well-defined point of view.

主張 refers to an opinion insofar as it is maintained, typically in public (and primarily to the maintaining of this opinion).

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 17.15

CASSIN 2004 Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles 179

CASSIN 2004 Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles 327

DOXA

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 499

CREDERE testimonio alicujus propter suam athoritatem acqviescere, seu, alqvid verum judicate propter autoritatum ejus qvi testatur.

Conc. 1. Narratio aliqua, testimonium. 2. Authoritas hoc est persvasio de narrantis et scientia et conscientia (qvae uno verbo Authoritas) 3. unde provenit assensus.

Ax. 1. Ubi nullum testimonium (narratio) ibi nulla fides.

2. Fides athoritate nititur.

3. Testanti non creadere, est authoritatem ejus in dubium vocare.

4. Evidenter verum libenter cretitur (qvia sensus com seipso luctari non gaudet)

5. Credere malle qvam scire est seipsum exoculare, et se errandi periculo exponere.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

BELIEVE

censere refers to the considered judgement by a person of considerable status, for example a senator.

judicare refers prototypically to the considered judgement of someone qualified to judge, like judge in a court of justice.

arbitrari refers to the considered belief prototypically by someone who is set to assess or arbitrate on a matter.

opinari is to hold and be prepared to utter a subjective and highly personal opinion as a changeable subjective opinion, and the word has strong connotations of modesty.

putare is to hold a subjective personal opinion.

reri is an archaic and poetic word for holding a personal opinion.

autumare is a highly antiquated word for holding an opinion.

aestimare is to assess objectively as a competent assessor.

existimare often involves a moral or personal judgment.

credere refers to belief on the basis of evidence from others, but the word is characteristically often used ironically.

OPINION

sententia refers to the view of a subject resting upon clear perception and an opinion formed through critical reflection.

opinio refers an opinion resting upon mere feeling.

suffragio refers to a formal opinion expressed in a vote.

opinatio refers to an assent to a certain opinion, typically without sufficient reason.

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 44

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

CREDULITAS

Mel'cuk 1984 Tolkovo-kombinatornyj slovar' sovremmenogo russkogo jazyka. Explanatory Combinatorial Dictionary of Modern Russian 424

Mel'cuk 1984 Tolkovo-kombinatornyj slovar' sovremmenogo russkogo jazyka. Explanatory Combinatorial Dictionary of Modern Russian 867

Mel'cuk I Dictionnaire explicatif et combinatoire du francais contemporain, vol. I 136

opinion

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 33

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 1.3015

SCHMIDT 1889 Handbuch der lateinischen und griechischen Synonymik 113

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 242

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 337

BORCHERT 2005 The Encyclopedia of Philosophy 1.532

QUINE 1987 Quiddities. An Intermittently Philosophical Dictionary 18

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vttoN.+V[0] : 45
  • VPttoN.+V[0] : 44
  • VPtt(oN.)+V[0] : 30
  • vtoN : 30
  • VPtoS : 24
  • VPt+V[0] : 15
  • vtoS : 13
  • vtoS : 11
  • vtt+V:post.vtoN : 10
  • NPab : 9
  • vtoN1.-ruòN2 : 8
  • VPtoN : 7
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0] : 6
  • vtt+V:post.vt(oN) : 6
  • vt(oN) : 6
  • vttoN1.post-vtoN2{OBJ} : 5
  • VPttpostNpro.+N{PRED} : 4
  • nab : 4
  • vttoN1:postvtoN2 : 2
  • vtt(oN{PIVOT}.)+N{PRED} : 2
  • vtt+V.postN{TOP} : 2
  • vttoN1.post-vt(oN2) : 1
  • VPadS : 1
  • vt+prep+N : 1
  • n : 1
  • npost-N : 1
  • v[adN] : 1
  • vtoNab{S} : 1
  • vtt(oN1.)+N2:postNpro : 1
  • NPm : 1
  • vttoN1.+N2{PRED} : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 51
  • 百喻經 : 40
  • 春秋左傳 : 18
  • 孟子 : 18
  • 論語 : 17
  • 史記 : 16
  • 呂氏春秋 : 16
  • 荀子 : 12
  • 說苑 : 12
  • 戰國策 : 11
  • 論衡 : 11
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 10
  • 臨濟錄 : 10
  • 墨子 : 8
  • 管子 : 7
  • 莊子 : 6
  • 祖堂集 : 5
  • 記纂淵海 : 3
  • 淮南子 : 3
  • 賢愚經 : 2
  • 韓詩外傳 : 2
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 2
  • 法句經 : 2
  • 列子 : 1
  • 鹽鐵論 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 翻譯名義集 : 1
  • 法言 : 1
  • 法集要頌經 : 1
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1
  • 公孫龍子 : 1

Words

以為   yǐ wéi OC: k-lɯʔ ɢʷal MC: jɨ ɦiɛ 115 Attributions

Yǐ wéi 以為 and occasionally also yǐ 以 alone refer to a belief that is typically held to be less than reliable.

  • VPt+V[0]passivebe taken to V; be considered (subjectively and often unjustifiably) as V
  • VPtoNpassivebe taken to be an N; be considered as an N
  • VPtoSgradedtake it to be the case that S(often in polite speech:) to think (rightly, as in HF 7.2.3) that, to believe that 臣以為,甚以為不然; be convinced that, feel that
  • VPtoSwronglytake it wrongly to be the case that; wrongly imagine
  • VPtt(oN.)+V[0]consider the contextually determinate object as V; consider that the contextually determinate object Vs THESE EXAMPLES ARE IN A TERRIBLE MESS. MUST BE CHECKED.
  • VPttoN.+V[0]reflexive自:take oneself to be V-ing; consider oneself to be V-ing
  • VPttpostNpro.+N{PRED}psychtake oneself to be an N; consider (oneself) an N
  • vtt(oN1.)+N2:postNpropsychconsider something contextually determinate N1 as one's own N2
  • VPtt(oN1.) N2{PRED}pivot
  • VPtt(oN1.) N2{PRED}pivotconsider the contextually determinate N1 to be an N2
  • VPtt(oN.)+V[0]believe the contextually determinate N to V
   wéi OC: ɢʷal MC: ɦiɛ 40 Attributions
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0]consider the contextually determinate subject N to V
  • vtt(oN{PIVOT}.)+N{PRED}consider the contextually determinate object as N[PRED]
  • vtt+V:post.vt(oN)consider that the contextually determinate N is V-ing 以為
  • vtt+V:post.vtoN以N為V: regard N as V-ing; believe that N V-s 以汝為死
  • vtt+V.postN{TOP}consider N as V
  • vttoN.+V[0]psychconsider (oneself) to V
  • vttoN1:postvtoN2hail N2 as N1; believe that N2 is an N1 以N1為N2
  • vttoN1.post-vt(oN2)believe
  • vtoSbelieve that S
  • vtoNpassive: be considered as N> count as N
  • vtoStake it to be the case that S, consider that S
  • vttoN1.post-vtoN2{OBJ}consider N2 to be N1
   xìn OC: sins MC: sin 36 Attributions

Xìn 信 is sometimes used to refer to someone trusting something to be the case or being confident that something is the case.

  • v[adN]pluralBUDDH: believer (in Buddhism); concretely: lay supporter, lay Buddhist
  • vt(oN)believe the contextually determinate N
  • vt+prep+Nhave faith in
  • vtoNtrust to be true, believe; have faith inalso religiously BUDDH: believe in 信佛語
  • vtoNpassivebe believed in; be believed (of a person)
  • vtoNab{S}believe that S
  • vtoNbelieve what N said
   wèi OC: ɢuds MC: ɦɨi 32 Attributions

Wèi 謂 typically refers to a mistaken belief.

  • vtoS(often wrongly) imagine that S
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0]consider the contextually determinate N to V
  • vtt(oN{PIVOT}.)+N{PRED}believe the contextually determinate pivot N to be the predicate N.
  • vttoN.+V[0]pivot(typically wrongly:) think of N that he/she/it Vs; think that N will V
  • vttoN.+V[0]reflexive.自consider oneself (typically wrongly) to V
視 / 視   shì OC: ɡljils MC: dʑi shì OC: ɢljils MC: ʑi 15 Attributions
  • vtoN1.-ruòN2look upon (e.g. the people)(e.g. like their father or mother)
  • vttoN.+V[0]pivottake the view that S obtains, take the view that S is true  
  • vttoN1.+N2{PRED}regard N1 as N2
  • vttoN.+V[0]psychlook upon (oneself) as V-ing [=MSC]
  • vtoNpsychlook upon (oneself)
   yǐ OC: k-lɯʔ MC: jɨ 13 Attributions
  • vttoN.+V[0]e.g. 以此不信 "consider this to be untrustworthy": think that the N Vs [[Several bad examples have to be removed]]
  • vttoN.+V[0]psychconsider (oneself) to V 
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0]e.g. 以美於徐公 "consider me to be more handsome than Xu" believe that N V-s
  • DELETEN=pivotconsider N to be (the) N{PRED}
   duó OC: ɡ-laaɡ MC: dɑk 6 Attributions
  • vttoN.+V[0]psychreckon that (oneself) V-s> believe (oneself) to V,
  • vtoSconsider that S
   yì OC: qɯɡs MC: ʔɨ 5 Attributions

Yì 意 refers to guesswork, anticipation and the like.

  • nabpsychidea, thought
  • vtoNab{S}imagine (typically an unlikely situation); guess, anticipate
  • vtoSbelieve/suspect/assume that S
見處   jiàn chù OC: keens qhljas MC: ken tɕhi̯ɤ 5 Attributions
  • NPabpsychpoint of view, personal opinion
謂呼   wèi hū OC: ɢuds qhaa MC: ɦɨi huo̝ 5 Attributions
  • VPtoSwrongly believe that S, imagine wrongly that; consider that
   jiàn OC: keens MC: ken 4 Attributions

Jiàn 見 "view" is very occasionally used figuratively to refer to an opinion.

  • npost-Ndoctrine concerning N
  • vtoNpassivebe considered as
  • vtoSconsider (the subject of S as the predicate of S), have the view that
謂為   wèi wéi OC: ɢuds ɢʷal MC: ɦɨi ɦiɛ 4 Attributions
  • VPtt(oN.)+V[0]believe N to V
是非   shì fēi OC: ɡljeʔ pɯl MC: dʑiɛ pɨi 3 Attributions
  • NPabpsychopinions on what is right and wrong; firm conception what is right and wrong
   shì OC: lʰebs MC: ɕiɛi 1 Attribution
  • nby extension, occasionally: current opinion among one's contemporaries
   liào OC: reews MC: leu 1 Attribution
  • vttoN.+V[0]pivotreckon that N V-s
   guān OC: koon MC: kʷɑn 1 Attribution
  • vtoNtake a view on (something), have a view on (a subject), understand (something) in a certain way
  • vtoSconsider that S, regard the subject as predicating
信然   xìn rán OC: sins njen MC: sin ȵiɛn 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativetrust in so as to consider as true
信用   xìn yòng OC: sins k-loŋs MC: sin ji̯oŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativebelieve so as to use and put into practice
信行   xìn xíng OC: sins ɢraaŋ MC: sin ɦɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativebelieve in so as to practice
斷見   duàn jiàn OC: toons keens MC: tʷɑn ken 1 Attribution
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: view that there is a 'cutting off' (type of nihilistic worldview; heretical view that the self is destroyed at the time of death and that there is no rebirth, as such the deeds which one has performed during one's lifetime do not have any consequences); skr. uccheda-dṛṣṭi
民心   mín xīn OC: min slɯm MC: min sim 1 Attribution

Mín xīn 民心 is public opinion.

  • NPmpublic opinion; the people's allegiance, the people's loyalty
納信   nà xìn OC: nuub sins MC: nəp sin 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNstativeaccept and believe
以臣觀之   yǐ chén guān zhī OC: k-lɯʔ ɡjiŋ koon kljɯ MC: jɨ dʑin kʷɑn tɕɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPadSin my opinion
   kǒng OC: khoŋʔ MC: khi̯oŋ 0 Attributions
  • vt[0]oSI'm afraid S, I think that S
信從   xìn cóng OC: sins dzoŋ MC: sin dzi̯oŋ 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNresultativebelieve so as to follow in practice
視猶   shì yóu OC: ɡljils k-lu MC: dʑi jɨu 0 Attributions

Shì yóu 視猶 "look upon as" is occasionally used to refer to a belief attached to an attitude.

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: