ALREADY  已經

NOW AND NOT ONLY LATER.
Antonymy

NOT

Kind Of

NOW

Old Chinese Criteria

[GENERAL/SPECIFIC]

1. Yǐ 已 (ant. wèi 未 "not yet") is the general current word for "already", and this word can precede nominal predicates ( 在位已十年矣 "for already 10 years" analysed as vadN), jì 既 cannot be so used.

[GENERAL]

2. Jì 既 (ant. wèi 未 "not yet") is limited to subordinate clauses, yǐ 已 has no such limitations of distribution in this respect. Jì 既 can only be used in front of VPs expressing a clearly concluded development which the word declares to have been completed; yǐ 已 can also mark that something has already STARTED. See also AFTERWARDS

[SPECIFIC]

Modern Chinese Criteria

已經

已然 (lit) is a highly literary variant for 已經.

曾經

業經

業已

早已

早就

久已

既已

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis, based on CL. 18.11.2003. CH/

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 546

ARYUTUNOVA 2002 Logicheskii analiz yazyka 156

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vadV : 32
  • vadV.postN{SUBJ}:adS : 25
  • PPadS1.adS2 : 3
  • padV : 3
  • vadNP{PRED} : 1
  • vpostadV.adS : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 22
  • 史記 : 10
  • 祖堂集 : 6
  • 莊子 : 3
  • 春秋左傳 : 3
  • 百喻經 : 3
  • 臨濟錄 : 3
  • 孟子 : 2
  • 說苑 : 2
  • 墨子 : 1
  • 戰國策 : 1
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 管子 : 1
  • 周易 : 1
  • 老子 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 太平經 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1

Words

   yǐ OC: k-lɯʔ MC: jɨ 44 Attributions

Yǐ 已 (ant. wèi 未 "not yet") is the general current word for "already", and this word can precede nominal predicates (在位已十年矣 "for already 10 years" analysed as vadN), jì 既 cannot be so used. [GENERAL]

  • vadVpastalready in the past (occasionally without final yǐ 矣); beforehand
  • vadVpresentby this time, already; after; after a while
  • vadV.postN{SUBJ}:adSafter, once (one) already has V-ed, after one has V-ed 以死誰懟
  • DELETEan event or a situtation N that has already occurred
  • vadVfuture(will) already
  • vpostadV.adS=矣 already
   jì OC: kɯds MC: kɨi 7 Attributions

Jì 既 (ant. wèi 未"not yet") is limited to subordinate clauses, yǐ 已 has no such limitations of distribution in this respect. Jì 既 can only be used in front of VPs expressing a clearly concluded development which the word declares to have been completed; yǐ 已 can also mark that something has already STARTED. See also AFTERWARDS [SPECIALISED]

  • vadNP{PRED}NP=timealready
  • vadValready
   zǎo OC: tsuuʔ MC: tsɑu 7 Attributions
  • vadVcolloquialalready; already from the start
既以   jì yǐ OC: kɯds k-lɯʔ MC: kɨi jɨ 3 Attributions
  • PPadS1.adS2having already
   dū OC: k-laa MC: tuo̝ 2 Attributions
  • padValready (when first attested?)
   zì OC: sblids MC: dzi 1 Attribution
  • padVcolloquialTang colloquial: already (Tang poetry)
   gù OC: kaas MC: kuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • vadVcertainly already 固聞之
   qì OC: kɯd MC: kɨt 0 Attributions
  • vpostS1.adS2post-Han: S1 having finished, S2
業已 / 業以   yè yǐ OC: ŋab k-lɯʔ MC: ŋi̯ɐp jɨ yè yǐ OC: ŋab k-lɯʔ MC: ŋi̯ɐp jɨ 0 Attributions
  • PPadVHan dynasty: already
   xiān OC: sɯɯn MC: sen 0 Attributions
  • vadV

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: