Taxonomy of meanings for 言:

  • yán (OC: ŋan MC: ŋiɐn) 語軒切 平 廣韻:【言語也字林云直言曰言荅難曰語釋名曰言宣也宣彼之意也又姓孔子弟子有言偃語軒切五 】
    • SPEAK
      • vispeak up publicly, preach
      • nabactpublic speech; the making of public statements; the public expression of personal opinion
      • nabactword; sentence; doctrine as expressed in words
      • nabdispositionability to speak
      • nabobjectstatements of opinion, proposal; public or formal utterance which commits the speaker; pronouncement; public or formal pronouncement, public or formal suggestion; Sometimes less specifically: proposal; what one says, speech; language; public proposal, public speech, words
      • nadVinstrumentto V through one's words
      • vadVdeclaring (say): 言曰
      • vt(oN)speak up on a contextually determinate matter
      • vt(oS)say so
      • vt[oN]express oneself in words 能言; speak up; 提意見, come up with statements, come up with one's personal opinions; state one's personal opinion of things; make a proposal
      • vt+prep+N.adVdeclare in front of
      • vt+V[0]say that one V-s
      • vtoNarticulate, express; propose; maintain, propose as true; pronounce on, speak up on, speak of (other's bad points); (abstractly) speak of (orally or in writing); inform of; suggest (often formally at court)
      • vtoNfigurative(a document etc) says 書言之
      • vtoNinchoativebegin to pronounce on; start to speak on
      • vtoNmathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
      • vtoNpassivebe spoken of in public, be pronounced on in public, be said in public
      • vtoNpsychtalk about (oneself)
      • vtoNPab{S}figurativedeclare (non-orally) that S
      • vtoS.postVsay S 白佛言S
      • vtoSimperativesay!
      • vtoSindirect-speechsay that S
      • vtoSquotation(rarely with indirect speech or quasi indirect speech) say S; say that S
      • vtpost-.VtoNactenter into discussions with (someone)
      • vttoN.+Stell N: S
      • vttoN.+V[0]psychclaim (oneself) to V [Indirect speech!)
      • vttoN1.+N2take up the matter N1 with N2, speak up on matter N1 to N2
      • viactstart to speak
      • vttoN1.+prep+N2speak of N1 to N2
      • vt[oN]physicalpronounce words (as a parrot might be able to do)
      • vtoNmention; refer to; speak of
      • nab[post-N.]adVin his public utterings, in his speech
      • nab.post-Nmessage/pronouncement of N
      • vtoNderivedunmarked nominalisation: to speak up on N
      • nab[.post-N]one's literary formulations; one's literary production, one's words; one's diction
      • viactuse language
      • the medium of speaking>LANGUAGE
        • nab.post-N{PLACE}.+N{PRED}in the language of Npl be called N
        • nab.post-Nlanguage of a place
        • nabactlanguage, speech [We need to find out when this word came to be used abstractly, as in 禽言]
      • what is conveyed by speaking>MEANING
      • speak in one’s mind>THINK
        • vtoSquotationsay to oneself that S
        • speak about>DISCUSS
          • nabactdiscussion, discourse; public discussion, public speech
          • nabpluralpublic statements
          • vt[oN]engage in serious discussion (with someone), discuss things (with someone)
          • vtoNmiddle voicebe a partner in an exchange of views (rather than informal conversation)
          • vtoN1.postvt(oN2)passivediscuss (a subject matter) with (someone)
          • vtoN1.postvt(oN2)engage in serious conversation or discussion
          • vtoNdiscuss the subject N (not: chat or converse about N)
          • vt(oN)speak of the contextually determinate N
        • speak to:ADDRESS
          • vt+prep+N.adVspeaking to 言於王曰 said to the king ZUO, ZGC, SHIJI, XINLUN
          • vt+prep+Ntalk to, make representations to
          • vtoNspeak up addressing (someone)
          • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2omsay something determinate N1 to (someone N2)
          • address so as to pose a question>ASK
            • vtoSask: "..."
        • object:SENTENCE
          • nccstatements; pronouncements; proposals
          • nmtext
          • vi.post-V{NUM}actpronounce V number of sentences
          • currently used popular sentence>PROVERB
            • nabtextsaying, memorable saying; sometimes: proverbial saying, popular saying; bon-mot, dict-on
          • marking sentence referred to:QUOTATION MARKER
            • vtoS.post-Vas follows: S 念言; which runs as follows 作是念言
            • part of sentence referred to>WORD
              • nword
              • nnonreferentialplural: words; specifically: the words in poetry
              • n(post-N)one's words
        • speak so as to commit oneself>PROMISE
          • nabactpublic commitments, public promises; promises, commitments
          • nabsingularpromise, public commitment
          • viactmake a promise, make a public commitment
          • vt+V[0]to promise (to do something); to commit oneself to V
          • vtoNmake public commitments on, promise (something); commit oneself to (something, not necessarily desirable for the recipient)
          • nab[.post-N][the subject's] promise
          • vt(oN)promise the contextually determinate thing
        • speak so as to persuade>ENCOURAGE
          • vtt[oN1]+prep+N2suggest or propose things to N2
          • nabactsuggestion