DOCUMENT  文獻

ARTEFACT PRODUCED FOR CONTAINING WRITING.
WRITINGWORKSCOMPOSITIONSBOOKSPUBLICATIONSOEUVREPAPERSARTICLESESSAYS
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The dominant general word for everything written is shū 書. (However, note that the word also refers specifically to a letter.)

2. Zhì 志 typically refers to a systematic coherent record.

3. Jì 記 refers to an ordered record designed to serve as an aide-memoire.

4. Jí 籍 refers to a formal and official record, typically a population register or a written official statute.

5. Zhuàn 傳 refers to an explanatory record, typically a record based on or commenting upon other written sources.

6. Lǎn 覽 refers to a comprehensive survey on a subject.

7. Xí 檄 refers to a written military command.

8. Sān chǐ 三尺 refers to the text of a law formally inscribed on large three-foot tablets.

9. Cè 冊/策 refers to a document, typically in the form of a bundle of bamboo strips.

NB: Xìn 信 "letter" is post-Han.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

COMMUNICATIONS 4.

書,一切書面記錄。

籍,文獻檔案的通稱。

簿,賬目和文書記事本; “ 帳 ” 出現後, “ 簿 ” 專表文書記事本。

帳,錢財進出的記錄本。

Modern Chinese Criteria

文獻

公文

文件

証書

証券

縹帙

緗帙

縹緗

卷帙

卷帙浩繁

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 18.61

FINSTERBUSCH 1966 Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen 236

Schreibaefelchen:

FINSTERBUSCH 2000 Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen 729

Buch:

F collects many Han reliefs depicting books.

FINSTERBUSCH 2000 Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen 800

Schriftstueck:

HUANG JINGUI 1995 古代文化詞異集類辨考 Gudai wenhua ci yi ji lei bian kao

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

SCRIPTIO

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 89

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 232

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 3.341

UNGER SACH "Sachwoerterbuch zum Alten China"

NEKROLOG

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 125

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • n : 113
  • NPm : 20
  • npr : 18
  • NP : 17
  • NPpr : 11
  • NPab : 6
  • nadV : 3
  • npr : 2
  • NPc : 2
  • nab : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 53
  • 韓非子 : 24
  • 禮記 : 20
  • 朱子語類 : 16
  • 祖堂集 : 15
  • 荀子 : 12
  • 孟子 : 9
  • 呂氏春秋 : 5
  • 論衡 : 5
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 5
  • 戰國策 : 4
  • 史記 : 3
  • 法言 : 3
  • 孝經 : 2
  • 論語 : 2
  • 莊子 : 2
  • 賢愚經 : 2
  • 百喻經 : 2
  • 臨濟錄 : 2
  • 六祖壇經 : 2
  • 說苑 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1

Words

   shū OC: qhlja MC: ɕi̯ɤ 87 Attributions

The dominant general word for everything written is shū 書. (However, note that the word also refers specifically to a letter.)

  • nwritings; written document of any kind; often specifically: official document; book; stationary
  • nprthe Book of Documents
文字   wén zì OC: mɯn sɡlɯs MC: mi̯un dzɨ 20 Attributions
  • NPmliterature; written material; texts
策 / 冊 / 筴   cè OC: skhreeɡ MC: ʈʂhɣɛk cè OC: skhreeɡ MC: ʈʂhɣɛk cè OC: skhreeɡ MC: ʈʂhɣɛk 12 Attributions

Cè 冊/策 refers to a document, typically in the form of a bundle of bamboo strips. Cè 冊/策 refers to a document, typically in the form of a bundle of bamboo strips. Cè 冊/策 refers to a document, typically in the form of a bundle of bamboo strips.

  • nbundle of bamboo strips for writing on; document; recordsbamboo or wooden strips woven together as a mat (the character 冊 depicts this). Ordinarily hemp was used for string, but silk could be used for especially valuable writings; perhaps leather ( 韋 ) was used in a similar way. On each strip were cut triangular indentations to keep the string in place. It was common to have two or three strings ( 編, 道 ). The last strip served as a center around which the 冊 was wrapped. On the back of the first strip the title of the 冊 could be written. Each strip could have a serial number. 冊 and 策 appear to be used interchangably, except that wheras 策 is a general word for strips of any length women in the above way, 策 (cf. its original meaning of "whip") is preferably made of rather long strips. 冊 is not used for counting written material. [JP]STATIONARY
  • nadVfigurativeusing a formal document, certified by a document > legally > formally, officially
  • nexaminationexamination document
春秋   chūn qiū OC: thjun tshiw MC: tɕhʷin tshɨu 11 Attributions
  • NPprAnnals; often specifically: the Annals attributed to Confucius
   jì OC: kɯs MC: kɨ 10 Attributions

Jì 記 refers to an ordered record designed to serve as an aide-memoire.

  • n(that which is recorded>) a record; ordered record to aid memory; a written notice
   zhuàn OC: dons MC: ɖiɛn 7 Attributions

Zhuàn 傳 refers to an explanatory record, typically a record based on or commenting upon other written sources.

  • ntraditional account based on pre-existing sources, tradition
  • nspecificpassport
   hù OC: hmɯɯd MC: huot 6 Attributions
  • nwooden tablet inscribed with duties at court; ritual 笏 were made of jade
簡書   jiǎn shū OC: kreenʔ qhlja MC: kɣɛn ɕi̯ɤ 4 Attributions
  • NPwriting on bamboo> bamboo document
經典   jīng diǎn OC: keeŋ tɯɯnʔ MC: keŋ ten 4 Attributions
  • NPsutra
  • NPpluralHANSHU: the received scriptures; sutra
  • NPc(concrete) classic, scripture
   zhì OC: kljɯs MC: tɕɨ 3 Attributions

Zhì 志 typically refers to a systematic coherent record.2

  • nsystematic public and official record; document
   lùn OC: ɡ-ruuns MC: luo̝n 3 Attributions
  • ntreatise
  • nbuddhistsutra
三藏   sān zàng OC: saam sɡaaŋs MC: sɑm dzɑŋ 3 Attributions
  • NPBUDDH: three baskets (of texts) > Tripiṭaka
書策   shū cè OC: qhlja skhreeɡ MC: ɕi̯ɤ ʈʂhɣɛk 3 Attributions
  • NPpluraldocuments, books
法藏   fǎ zàng OC: pab sɡaaŋs MC: pi̯ɐp dzɑŋ 3 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: skr. dharma-piṭaka (collection of Buddhist texts; see san1zàng 三藏)
   zhǔ OC: tjoʔ MC: tɕi̯o 1 Attribution
  • ninscribed ancestral tablet placed in temple GULIANG 作喜公主"made an ancestral tablet for Lord Xi"
   xìn OC: sins MC: sin 1 Attribution

NB: Xìn 信 "letter" is post-Han.

  • nwritten document, letter
   jí OC: sɡaɡ MC: dziɛk 1 Attribution

Jǐ2 籍 refers to a formal and official record, typically a population register or a written official statute.

  • nregister; specifically: population register; record, specifically: written record of a statute
   zàng OC: sɡaaŋs MC: dzɑŋ 1 Attribution
  • nabbuddhistBUDDH: basket/repository > set of canonical Buddhist texts, see 三臧
   lǎn OC: ɡ-raamʔ MC: lɑm 1 Attribution

Lǎn 覽 refers to a comprehensive survey on a subject.

  • nsurvey
   zhāng OC: kjaŋ MC: tɕi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • nofficially sanctioned (and stamped?) document
  • nabmathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
周易   zhōu yì OC: tjɯw leeɡs MC: tɕɨu jiɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPBook of Changes
文筆   wén bǐ OC: mɯn prud MC: mi̯un pit 1 Attribution
  • NPliterary compilations; notes, writings
書圖   shū tú OC: qhlja daa MC: ɕi̯ɤ duo̝ 1 Attribution
  • NPpluraldocuments and illustrations> documents
毗尼藏   pí ní zàng OC: bi nil sɡaaŋs MC: bi ɳi dzɑŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: skr. vinaya-piṭaka (collection of monastic rules and related texts)
修多羅藏   xiū duō luó zàng OC: sqlɯw k-laal b-raal sɡaaŋs MC: sɨu tɑ lɑ dzɑŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: skr. Sūtra-piṭaka (collection of the sermons of Buddha)
阿毗曇藏   ā pí tán zàng OC: qlaal bi doom sɡaaŋs MC: ʔɑ bi dəm dzɑŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: skr. Abidharma-piṭaka (collection of texts consisting of commentaries on the sūtras)
   mìng OC: mɢreŋs MC: mɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • nformal document stating results of an agreement or a public order etc.
甫刑   fǔ xíng MC: pjuX heng OC: paʔ ɡeeŋ 1 Attribution
  • npra chapter of the Book of Documents, whose standard name is Lü3xing2 呂刑
大雅   dà dài yǎ MC: dajH ngaeX OC: daads ŋɡraaʔ 1 Attribution
  • npr"Great Elegantiae", one of the major parts of the Book of Songs
識志   zhì zhì MC: tsyiH tsyiH OC: kljɯɡs kljɯs 1 Attribution
  • NPrecords, documents
圖籍   tú jí MC: du dzjek OC: daa sɡaɡ 1 Attribution
  • NPmaps and tax registers; the key documents of a state
   xí OC: ɡleeɡ MC: ɦek 0 Attributions

Xí 檄 refers to a written military command.

  • na long (2 chǐ 尺) jiǎn 簡, typically used for writing military commands on
簿   bù OC: baaʔ MC: buo̝ 0 Attributions
  • nrecord; ledger
   lù OC: roog MC: luk 0 Attributions
  • ndivine/heavenly appointment document
   zǎi OC: skɯɯʔ MC: tsəi 0 Attributions
  • npost-Han: formal record
三尺   sān chǐ OC: saam thjaɡ MC: sɑm tɕhiɛk 0 Attributions

Sān chǐ 三尺 refers to the text of a law formally inscribed on large three-foot tablets.

  • nlong wooden tablet used for writing down laws
典籍   diǎn jí OC: tɯɯnʔ sɡaɡ MC: ten dziɛk 0 Attributions
  • NPpluraldocuments
文藻   wén zǎo OC: mɯn tsaawʔ MC: mi̯un tsɑu 0 Attributions
  • NPabtextliterary work
書契   shū qì OC: qhlja khees MC: ɕi̯ɤ khei 0 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentialdocuments
  • NPabactthe invention of written documents
書繩   shū shéng OC: qhlja sbljɯŋ MC: ɕi̯ɤ ʑɨŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPdocument???
讖緯   chèn wěi OC: tshrims ɢuls MC: ʈʂhim ɦɨi 0 Attributions
  • NPmystical prophetical books of the Eastern Han
   cǎo OC: tshuuʔ MC: tshɑu 0 Attributions
  • nadNdrafted only
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • npr"Great Elegantiae", one of the major parts of the Book of Songs

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: