SPEAK  

ACT so as to USE WORDS FOR SHOWING MEANING.*Speech by speaker X, directed towards audience Y, in order to communicate message Z.
TALKSAY ANYTHING/SOMETHINGUTTERSTATEDECLARETELLVOICEEXPRESSPRONOUNCEARTICULATEENUNCIATEVOCALIZEVERBALIZE.GIVE A SPEECHTALKLECTUREHOLD FORTHDISCOURSEEXPOUNDEXPATIATEORATESERMONIZEPONTIFICATEDECLAIMINFORMAL SPOUTSPIELSPEECHIFYJAWSOUND OFF.SPEAK PUBLICLYSPEAK OPENLYSPEAK FRANKLYSPEAK ONE'S MINDSOUND OFFSTAND UP AND BE COUNTED
Antonym

SILENCELACK SOUND OR SPEECH.DUMBLACK of ABILITY to HEAR.

Hypernym

ACTMOVE OR NOT MOVE CONFORMING to one's SELF:own DECIDE:decision. -> MOVECHANGE PLACE OR SITUATION. -> CHANGEEVENT involving two MOMENTS t1 and t2, such that a THING at the MOMENT t1 is DIFFERENT FROM that THING at the MOMENT t2. -> EVENTREALITY that ARISES in TIME. -> REALITYEXIST and NOT ONLY BE IMAGINED. -> EXISTBE-IN the UNIVERSE of SPACE AND TIME. -> BE INRELATION between a THING AND what that THING FILLS OR PART:partially FILLS. -> RELATIONFEATURE of TWO OR MORE THINGS TOGETHER. -> FEATUREABSTRACT OBJECT a THING is SAID to BE OR to HAVE. -> OBJECT[NO HYPERNYM.] WHAT one CAN NAME:refer to. -> PRIME -> N/A

See also

MEANIDEA insofar as SHOWN:expressed OR INTENDED.SOUNDWHAT CAN be HEARD.NAMESPEAK so as to REFER to something OR WORD USED for REFERRING to something.

Hyponym
  • ADDRESS SPEAK OR WRITE INTENDING ANOTHER TO HEAR OR READ AND TO REACT to IT. 
    • COMMAND ADDRESS someone, USING AUTHORITY, INTENDING to CAUSE that person to ACT RESEMBLE:as one INTENDS him to ACT.
      • DECREE PUBLIC COMMAND ISSUED by the RULER OR by HIGH AUTHORITY.
      • DEPLOY COMMAND an ARMY to ACT:engage in WARFARE.
      • EMPLOY COMMAND to ACT:do PAID WORK FOR ONESELF.
      • LAW GROUP of ENDURING PUBLIC COMMANDS SHOULD:obligatory FOR ALL MEMBERS of a STATE....
      • SUMMON COMMAND to COME to a SUPERIOR, OFTEN TOGETHER with OTHERS.
      • FORBID COMMAND NOT to ACT:do something.
      • SEND COMMAND OR CAUSE something OR someone to MOVE OR BE MOVED to a PLACE....
      • DON'T COMMAND that one SHOULD NOT to ACT in a DEFINED way.
    • CONGRATULATE ADDRESS someone who is CELEBRATING SOMETHING so as to RITUALLY COMMUNICATE one's GOOD WISHES FOR him/her at THIS TIME.
      • CONSOLE ADDRESS someone OR INTERACT with someone who is SUFFERING so as to COMMUNICATE one's SYMPATHY with him, and so as to HELP him.
        • DIALOGUE MUTUAL ADDRESSING EXCHANGED between those who MUTUALLY LISTEN.
          • ARGUE DIALOGUE in which one COMPETES in EXPLAINing USING REASONS that what one SAYS is TRUE. 
          • CONVERSATION FREE AND NOT OFFICIAL DIALOGUE AMONG FRIENDS, TYPICALLY ABOUT IMORTANT QUESTIONS OF COMMON INTEREST.
          • SOLILOQUY DIALOGUE of a PERSON WITH SELF:him/herself
          • NECROMANCY DIALOGUE WITH THE DEAD IN ORDER TO PREDICT FUTURE.
        • DEMAND ADDRESS someone so as to COMMAND that that person ACT:do something.
          • FAREWELL ADDRESS someone to REPORT that one is FUTURE:about-to LEAVE, OFTEN:typically COMMUNICATING one's GOOD WISHES FOR him.
            • GOOD-BYE Performative form of words used on occasions of FAREWELL.
          • PERMIT ADDRESS someone with AUTHORITY so as to SAY that one does NOT FORBID what s/he is HOPING to ACT:do.
            • RELEASE PERMIT to LEAVE OR to MOVE FREELY.
          • PRAY ADDRESS DEITIES OFTEN:typically with RITUAL REQUESTS.
            • EXORCISE PRAY so as to TRY to REMOVE WICKED SUPERNATURAL FORCES.
          • PROMISE ADDRESS ANOTHER SAYING that one FUTURE:will CERTAINLY DO something DESIRED by him/her.
            • CONTRACT MUTUALLY PROMISE, TYPICALLY USING WRITING, TO ACT in a certain way.[[VERTRAG]]...
            • FORGIVE PROMISE someone one ASSUMES to be GUILTY of a CRIME OR MISTAKE which OFFENDS ONE so as to SAY that one WILL NOT HATE THAT PERSON BECAUSE of that CRIME OR MISTAKE.
            • GUARANTEE PROMISE TO CAUSE SOMETHING TO be ACHIEVED.
            • BETROTHAL PROMISE TO MARRY
          • ANSWER ADDRESS someone who has ADDRESSED one REQUESTING such an ADDRESS as a REACTION.
            • REPORT ADDRESS others so as to CAUSE them to BECOME AWARE of a FACT.
              • PUBLICISE REPORT to ALL....
              • PREDICT REPORT one's GUESSING about the FUTURE.
              • STORY REPORT of a SEQUENCE of REAL OR FICTIONAL EVENTS....
              • ANNUNCIATION REPORT TO MARY THAT SHE IS PREGNANT WITH JESUS
            • REQUEST To ADDRESS someone so as to TRY TO CAUSE him/her TO ACT in a certain way.
              • ASK REQUEST an ANSWER....
              • BEG REQUEST INTENSELY HUMBLY FOR A GIFT.
              • INVITE RITUALLY REQUEST someone to JOIN one in an ACT:activity one ASSUMES to be MUTALLY PLEASANT.
            • TEACH ADDRESS OTHERS so as to TRY to CAUSE them to HAVE SKILLS OR TALENTS.*Teaching by the teacher X, to learner Y, of content Z.
              • EDUCATE SYSTEMATIC TEACHING FOR TRANSMISSION of MORALITY, CULTURE AND SKILLS.
              • REVELATION NEW TRANSCENDENT TEACHING
            • THANK ADDRESS someone so as to SHOW GRATEFUL:gratitude, USING WORDS.
            • WARN ADDRESS someone so as to CAUSE him to UNDERSTAND what one BELIEVES to be DANGEROUS FOR him.
              • OATH ADDRESS someone DECLARING INTENSELY that what one is SAYING is TRUE, and in so doing REFERRING to DEITIES as WITNESSES.
                • PERJURY OATH in which one LIES.
              • COMMUNICATE MUTUALLY ADDRESS so as to CAUSE an IDEA to be UNDERSTOOD.
                • ADVISE ADDRESS someone INTENDing to HELP  his/her PLANing. 
                  • ENCOURAGE ADVISE someone so as to TRY to PERSUADE that person to ACT in a way one BELIEVES to be PROFITABLE FOR that person.
                  • PERSUADE ADVISE so as to CAUSE someone to CHANGE his/her BELIEF OR TO DECIDE to ACT.
                • CHALLENGE ADDRESS someone so as DEMAND to FIGHT WITH him, OR so as to DEMAND another COURAGEOUS REACTION.
                  • PREACH ADDRESS OTHERS in EXPLAINING SUPERNATURAL TRUTHS.
                    • GREET ADDRESS someone one is MEETING NOW COMMUNICATING one's GOOD WISHES FOR her/him.
                      • BOW DOWN GREET so as to BEND one's BODY DOWN as a POLITE GESTURE....
                    • REPROACH ADDRESS someone so as to BLAME him/her.
                      • INSULT ADDRESS SOMEONE SO AS TO CAUSE HIM TO BECOME ANGRY
                      • CRITICISE SPEAK about something as being BAD and AVOIDABLE.
                        • BLAME CRITICISE someone as GUILTY of a WICKED:reprehensible MISTAKE OR a CRIME.
                          • ACCUSE To BLAME AND INTEND the PERSON BLAMED to be JUDGED AND CONDEMNED CONFORMING:in accordance with LAW.
                          • SCOLD BLAME someone ADDRESSING him/her USING VIOLENT WORDS.
                        • REMONSTRATE CRITICISE a SUPERIOR ADDRESSING A SUPERIOR.
                          • SLANDER CRITICISE INTENSELY, LACKING APPROPRIATE REASONS, NOT ADDRESSING the HUMAN BLAMED.
                            • LAMPOON SCOLD or CRITICISE BY NOT FAIR ACCUSATIONS AND SATIRE.
                              • CONDEMN CRITICISE AND PUBLICLY DECLARE GUILTY of a CRIME AND ORDER TO BE PUNISHED FOR THAT CRIME.
                                • TEASE ADDRESS AND CRITICISE JOKINGLY so as to TRY CAUSE to BECOME EMBARRASSED.
                                • DISCUSS SPEAK SYSTEMATICALLY on something, BASING oneself on INVESTIGATION AND REFLECTION.
                                  • EXPLAIN DISCUSS so as to CAUSE something to BECOME MORE CLEAR.
                                    • COMPARE EXPLAIN HOW TWO OR MORE THINGS MUTUALLY RESEMBLE:are-similar OR are MUTUALLY DIFFERENT.
                                    • GLOSS EXPLAIN the MEANING of what is WRITTEN OR SAID.
                                    • PROVE EXPLAIN CLEARLY WHY a SENTENCE is TRUE.
                                    • SUMMARISE EXPLAIN COMPLETELY BUT SHORTLY, OMITTING NOT-IMPORTANT DETAILS.
                                    • SOLVE EXPLAIN a PROBLEM.
                                    • DESCRIBE EXPLAIN the SHAPE OR NATURE of something.
                                    • ANALYSE EXPLAIN something by SYSTEMATICALLY DISTINGUISHING its BASIC PARTS AND their FUNCTIONS.
                                    • TRANSLATE EXPLAIN USING A DIFFERENT LANGUAGE.
                                    • JUSTIFY EXPLAIN WHY something is CORRECT OR GOOD.
                                    • DEFINE EXPLAIN OR FIX the MEANING of something.
                                    • ANALOGY EXPLANATION USING DETAILED COMPARISON.
                                    • INTERPRET EXPLAIN ONE'S UNDERSTANDING OF SOMETHING.
                                  • POLITICS LEGITIMATE CONCRETE PUBLIC DISCUSSION of DIFFERENT METHODS to GOVERN a DEFINITE STATE.
                                  • DISTINGUISH SPEAK OR THINK so as to UNDERSTAND OR to CAUSE OTHERS to UNDERSTAND that DIFFERENT THINGS are DIFFERENT.
                                    • MOCK SPEAK OR ACT so as to CAUSE OTHERS to LAUGH at someone.
                                      • SATIRE MOCK USING LITERATURE.
                                        • PARODY SATIRE USING MOCKING IMITATION of the OBJECT.
                                    • PRAISE SPEAK about something GOOD and NOT COMMON in ANOTHER HUMAN, ANIMAL OR THING.
                                      • FLATTER PRAISE SUPERIOR, TYPICALLY with the AIM of CAUSING ONESELF to BECOME LOVED by SUPERIORS TO be DELIGHTED.
                                        • RECOMMEND PRAISE so as to ADVISE USE of by the HUMAN ADDRESSED.
                                          • APPLAUSE PRAISE a PRESENT ACTION USING ACTIONS, NOT WORDS.
                                            • COMPLIMENT PRAISE POLITELY AND PLAYFULLY.
                                            • SHOUT SPEAK INTENSELY LOUDLY OR PRODUCE INTENSELY LOUD SOUNDS.
                                              • CLAMOUR SHOUT TOGETHER in a CHAOTIC way.
                                                • ROAR SHOUT so as to PRODUCE an INTENSELY LOUD ANIMAL NOISE.
                                                • SING SPEAK CONFORMING to a MELODY.
                                                  • CHANT SING POETRY OR PROSE CONFORMING to a SIMPLE MELODY, NOT CONFORMING TO SONG MELODY.
                                                  • DENY SPEAK:say that something that has been SAID is UNTRUE.
                                                    • ATHEISM DENIAL that DEITIES EXIT.
                                                    • LIE SAY what one KNOWS to be NOT TRUE.
                                                      • ASSENT SPEAK:say that one BELIEVES what ANOTHER in the PAST has SPEAK:said.
                                                        • AGREE TO ASSENT that one is WILLING to ACT CONFORMing to someone OTHER:else's REQUEST.  
                                                          • ACCEPT AGREE-TO RECEIVE AND THEN HAVE. 
                                                          • RECONCILIATION AGREE to CEASE WARFARE.
                                                          • YES AGREE to WHAT IS SAID, USING an EXCLAMATION.
                                                          • TREATY WRITTEN AGREEMENT BETWEEN STATES OR GROUPS.
                                                        • ADMIT ASSENT to what the LISTENER has in the PAST DECLARED to be TRUE OR what the LISTENER is BELIEVED to BELIEVE is TRUE.
                                                          • APOLOGISE ADMIT that one has in the PAST been GUILTY AND DECLARE that one REGRETS this.
                                                          • SURRENDER ADMIT PUBLICLY that one is DEFEATED.
                                                          • CONFESS ADMIT one's SELF:own CRIMES OR MISTAKES.
                                                        • CONSENSUS FREE ASSENT:agreement on something among the MEMBERS of an ASSOCIATION or a GROUP.
                                                        • COMPLAIN SAY that something is NOT JUST AND BAD IN-RELATION-TO SELF:oneself OR someone CLOSE to SELF:oneself.
                                                          • GRUMBLE COMPLAIN ADDRESSING ONESELF to ONESELF
                                                          • DISAGREE SPEAK:say OR BELIEVE that what someone SPEAK:says OR BELIEVES is NOT TRUE.
                                                            • CLASSIFY SAY OR THINK that something to be of a certain CATEGORY.
                                                              • STUTTER SPEAK so as to OFTEN, NOT VOLUNTARILY, STOP SPEAKING.
                                                                • CURSE SPEAK so as to TRY to CAUSE DIVINE DISASTER FOR someone.
                                                                  • REPEAT HAPPEN AS OR what has HAPPENED BEFORE,OR SAY OR ACT:do what one has SAID OR ACT:done,.
                                                                    • AGAIN REPEATing what has HAPPENED or been ACT:done in the PAST. 
                                                                    • SENTENCE SPEAK>SPEECH COMMUNICATING a COMPLETE THOUGHT.???
                                                                      • PROVERB SHORT SENTENCE OFTEN USED USED by ALL FOR EXPRESSING an ACCEPTED TRUTH OR COMMON OPINION.
                                                                        • AXIOM SENTENCE that is TRUE AND does NOT NEED PROOF.
                                                                          • PARADOX SENTENCE WHICH IS APPARENTLY TRUE AND UNTRUE AT THE SAME TIME.
                                                                          • EXAGGERATE SPEAK so as to SEEM to CAUSE OTHERS TO BELIEVE that THINGS are GREATER in SIZE, DEGREE of FEATURES, OR IMPORTANCE than they REALLY are.
                                                                            • BOAST EXAGGERATE, OR SPEAK of, one's SELF:own GOOD FEATURES OR ACHIEVEMENTS.
                                                                            • QUOTE SAY OR WRITE what someone SAID OR WROTE, AND that he SAID OR WROTE IT.
                                                                              • REFER TO SPEAK OR ACT so as to CAUSE ONE TO HAVE:pay ATTENTION to something.
                                                                              • INTERRUPT SPEAK so as to CAUSE someone who WISHES TO CONTINUE TO SPEAK to STOP SPEAKING.
                                                                                • IRONY SPEAK so as to INTEND to COMMUNICATE the CONTRARY of what one's WORDS MEAN.
                                                                                  • NONSENSE CONFUSED SPEECH which LACKS MEANING.
                                                                                    • QUOTATION MARKER GRAMMAR [].
                                                                                      • EMPHASISE SPEAK:say that something one is SPEAK:saying is INTENSELY IMPORTANT.
                                                                                        • SPEECH SPEAK PUBLICLY
                                                                                          • BRAG SPEAK PROUDLY OF ONESELF.
                                                                                            • AFFIRM SPEAK:say something and SPEAK:say that WHAT one SPEAKS:says IS CERTAINLY TRUE.
                                                                                              • SUGGEST AFFIRM AS PROBABLY OR POSSIBLY TRUE.
                                                                                              • ORAL SPOKEN RATHER THAN WRITTEN.
                                                                                                • JUBILATION INTENSELY HAPPY SPEECH
                                                                                                  • PRONOUNCE PRODUCE SPEECH SOUND.
                                                                                                    Old Chinese Criteria

                                                                                                    1. The most colourless and general way of referring to any act of saying attributed to any subject, no matter whether animate or inanimate, something is yuē 曰, and the verb introduces direct speech.

                                                                                                    2. Yán 言 is to speak up, propose, typically in public, and on one's own initiative, to maintain something, and the word can indroduce direct speech as well as occasionally very limited indirect speech.

                                                                                                    3. Yǔ 語 is to say something as part of typically informal conversation. Contrast yù 語 "tell, inform" in REPORT.

                                                                                                    4. Tán 談 refers to informal chatter, mostly with some pejorative connotation.

                                                                                                    5. Yún 云 is used of books as well as persons and tends to refer to what are typically construed as authoritative acts of saying, and the word often has to be taken figuratively as "run as follows". (Note the perfectly regular contrast 曰 / 云 in MOUZI.)

                                                                                                    6. Wèi 謂 is to say or predicate something of someone. See also MEAN.

                                                                                                    7. Cí 辭 is primarily an act of careful articulation and rhetorical formulation.

                                                                                                    8. Dào 道 "speak of with authority, speak of adequately; quote" often involves quotation or especially serious discussion of important points, or the relating of important evidence.

                                                                                                    9. Jǔ 舉 is a technical term referring to the bringing up of a subject, and the subject of this verb is always a person, not a text.

                                                                                                    10. Chēng 稱 refers in a rather formal historian's style to the making of statements and the applying of terminology. See also NAME.

                                                                                                    Modern Chinese Criteria

                                                                                                    講話

                                                                                                    談話

                                                                                                    聊天

                                                                                                    談天兒

                                                                                                    聲明

                                                                                                    申明

                                                                                                    話 is the general noun for speech.

                                                                                                    言 is a literary word for words used.

                                                                                                    語 by itself is a literary word referring to talk.

                                                                                                    談 refers informally to dialogue.

                                                                                                    言語 is a rather formal way of speaking of discourse.

                                                                                                    言辭 refers to speech as a result of a deliberate act of formulation.

                                                                                                    說話 is the most common verb for talking.

                                                                                                    講話 refers to speech as an expression of opinion.

                                                                                                    話語 is a rather scientific abstract term for spoken forms of language.

                                                                                                    吐露 refers to speaking up on what ought to be kept secret.

                                                                                                    口稱 (lit) refers to the making of a (typically opening) remark.

                                                                                                    脫口而出 refers to blurting out a remark without proper reflection.

                                                                                                    rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

                                                                                                    • A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages ( BUCK 1988) p. 18.22

                                                                                                    • Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles ( CASSIN 2004) p. 727

                                                                                                    • De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione ( COMENIUS 1665) p. 573

                                                                                                      LOQUI est cogitata sua voce lingvae significare alteri.

                                                                                                      Req. 1. Aliqvis cogitans aliqvid.2. alqvis cui cogitata sua revelare velit. 3 Sina illa, per qvae cogitationes a mente illius in mentem hujus transeant, hoc est soni articulati.

                                                                                                    • De differentiis ( DIFFERENTIAE I) p. 226

                                                                                                      GARRIRE LOQUI

                                                                                                      267. Inter Garrire et loqui. Loquitur qui recte et temperanter dicit; garrit qui aut multa verba dicit, aut sordide loquitur.

                                                                                                    • Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien ( DOEDERLEIN 1840) p.

                                                                                                      SAY

                                                                                                      dicere refers to an act of saying as a means of conveying information.

                                                                                                      aio refers to a claim that is being made.

                                                                                                      asseverare is to affirm emphatically, and with special reference to earnestness.

                                                                                                      affirmare refers to the claim that something is solidly certain.

                                                                                                      contendere refers to the making of a claim as diverging froma tradition or a common assumption.

                                                                                                      loqui refers to the act of talking as an activity by a speaker, often with connotations of idle talk.

                                                                                                      ENUNCIATE

                                                                                                      enuntiare is to pronounce on something that has been on one's mind.

                                                                                                      eloqui is to formulate something that has been one one's mind with some attention to form.

                                                                                                      enuntiatio is a logical term.

                                                                                                      elocutio is primarily a rhetorical term.

                                                                                                      proloqui is to speak forth, as a moral act, as opposed to reticere "keep silent on a matter".

                                                                                                      pronuntiare refers to the physical act of elocution of sounds or words.

                                                                                                      recitare refers to the artistically modulated recitation of a whole sentence or text in public, with due attention being paid to the meaning of the text. See CHANT.

                                                                                                      SPEECH

                                                                                                      verbum refers to the word as part of a complete utterance.

                                                                                                      vocabulum refers to the word as part of a complete vocabulary.

                                                                                                      voces refers to words with special refernce to their sounds.

                                                                                                      vox is an expression of feeling or passion, like "exclamation".

                                                                                                      dictum is an expression of wit or intellect, a point made.

                                                                                                      dicterium is a late elevated word for dictum.

                                                                                                      TALK

                                                                                                      garrire refers to the act of talking as performed by someone habitually and excessively fond of talking.

                                                                                                      fabulari refers to the act of talking with emphasis on the nullity of what is being said.

                                                                                                      blatire refers to the act of talking with special emphasis on the foolishness of what is being said.

                                                                                                      blaterari refers to the act of talking with special emphasis on the extreme and remarkable foolishness of what is being said.

                                                                                                    • Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques ( DUFOUR 1910) p. 35

                                                                                                    • Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques ( DUFOUR 1910) p. 62

                                                                                                    • 韓非子同義詞研究 ( HANFEI TONGYI 2004) p. 204

                                                                                                    • Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum ( LANGIUS 1631) p.

                                                                                                      VERBUM

                                                                                                    • 論衡同義詞研究 ( LUNHENG TONGYI 2004) p. 95

                                                                                                    • Tolkovo-kombinatornyj slovar' sovremmenogo russkogo jazyka. Explanatory Combinatorial Dictionary of Modern Russian ( Mel'cuk 1984) p. 644

                                                                                                    • Dictionnaire explicatif et combinatoire du francais contemporain, vol. I ( Mel'cuk I) p. 144

                                                                                                    • Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise ( REY 2005) p. 3.1381

                                                                                                    • 東漢﹣隨常用詞演變研究 ( WANG WEIHUI 2000) p. 157

                                                                                                    • 王力古漢語字典 ( WANG LI 2000) p. 1278

                                                                                                      言,語

                                                                                                      1. WL claim that the object of ya2n 言 is never a person spoken to. In fact, ya2n yu2 言於 regularly means "speak to (a person of higher status)", and SSC records 62 instances of this.

                                                                                                      ZUO Xi 30.3.2 (630 B.C.); Ya2ng Bo2ju4n 479; Wa2ng Sho3uqia1n et al. 356; tr. Watson 1989:65; revised tr. CH

                                                                                                      佚之狐言於鄭伯曰: Yi4 Zhi1hu2 delared in front of the Earl of Zhe4ng:

                                                                                                      2. In many contexts ya2n 言 is to speak up and to formally propose or suggest something, typically to a superior. Yu3 語 does not have such usages and is almost always informal. Formal serious discussion with question and answer tends to be ya2n 言and not yu3 語.

                                                                                                      3. WL claims that that for "proverb, saying" one generally uses yu3 語 and not ya2n 言. SSC has over 50 examples where ya2n 言 means "saying". Zuo Zhao 27.2.3(516 B.C.) Ya2ng Bo2ju4n 1483; Wa2ng Sho3uqia1n et al.1368 tr. Legge:721

                                                                                                      「上國有言曰: "The upper States have a saying

                                                                                                      『不索, that if you do not seeek for a thing

                                                                                                      何獲?』 you will not get it."

                                                                                                      The special feature of the sayings ya2n 言, regularly introduced by yo3u ya2n 有言 "there is/was a saying", is that they tend to be located or even attributed as bon-mots or geflŸgelte Worte to a person or even an author. Yu3 語 on the other hand is only once in SSC attributed to someone specific (the people of the state of So4ng), and the word generally tends to refer to current popular sayings even when the phrase bi3 yu3 鄙語 is not used.

                                                                                                      4. WL compares“言”和“語”. But it remains quite unclear whether the reference is to yu3 語 or yu4 語, two very different words. When WL talk about the nominal uses of 語 the reference must be to yu3 語, whereas when they speak of the meaning "tell" for 語 the reference is to yu4 語. As a result the article is a complete mess.

                                                                                                      This example shows up clearly that the method of attaching synonym discussions to words rather than to words under a given interpretation is manifestly wrong and thoroughly confusing.

                                                                                                    • 中國文化背景八千詞 Zhongguo wenhua beijing ba qian ci ( WU SANXING 2008) p. 234ff

                                                                                                    • Using Chinese Synonyms ( GRACE ZHANG 2010) p. 217

                                                                                                    • Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary ( TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996) p. 374

                                                                                                    • Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary ( TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996) p. 378

                                                                                                    • Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology ( BARNARD AND SPENCER 2002) p.

                                                                                                      DISCOURSE

                                                                                                    • Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge ( PILLON 1850) p. no.315

                                                                                                    • Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge ( PILLON 1850) p. no.310

                                                                                                    • 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 ( HONG CHENGYU 2009) p. 338

                                                                                                    • Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung ( FRANKE 1989) p. 75B

                                                                                                      AEUSSERUNG(SPRACHLICHE)

                                                                                                    • () p.

                                                                                                    Attributions by syntactic funtion

                                                                                                    • vtoS : 160
                                                                                                    • nab : 157
                                                                                                    • vtoN : 98
                                                                                                    • NPab : 42
                                                                                                    • vt[oN] : 26
                                                                                                    • vi : 22
                                                                                                    • VPi : 21
                                                                                                    • VPtoS : 17
                                                                                                    • vttoN.+V[0] : 14
                                                                                                    • vt(0)oS : 9
                                                                                                    • nab[.post-N] : 9
                                                                                                    • vt(oN) : 8
                                                                                                    • vttoN.+S : 7
                                                                                                    • vt[oN] : 6
                                                                                                    • vtoNPab{S} : 6
                                                                                                    • VPttoN.+S : 5
                                                                                                    • vtoN.+VtoS : 4
                                                                                                    • nab.post-N : 3
                                                                                                    • vadN : 3
                                                                                                    • vt+prep+N : 3
                                                                                                    • vt(oS) : 2
                                                                                                    • vtpost-.VtoN : 2
                                                                                                    • vt+V[0] : 2
                                                                                                    • vt[0]oS : 2
                                                                                                    • vt+Vt.oS : 2
                                                                                                    • VPt(0)oS : 2
                                                                                                    • NPab{N1=N2} : 2
                                                                                                    • nab.adV : 1
                                                                                                    • n : 1
                                                                                                    • vtoS.post-V : 1
                                                                                                    • vttoN1.+prep+N2 : 1
                                                                                                    • vttoN1.+N2 : 1
                                                                                                    • vttoN{PIVOT}.+S{QUOTE} : 1
                                                                                                    • vtoS.postV : 1
                                                                                                    • vt(oN1.)post-VtoN2 : 1
                                                                                                    • vi.red : 1
                                                                                                    • VPtoN : 1
                                                                                                    • NPadN : 1
                                                                                                    • vtoN.+V : 1
                                                                                                    • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2 : 1
                                                                                                    • vt.red(oN) : 1
                                                                                                    • vt[0](oN) : 1
                                                                                                    • VPttoN1.+prep+N2 : 1

                                                                                                    Attributions by text

                                                                                                    • 說苑 : 92
                                                                                                    • 荀子 : 55
                                                                                                    • 賢愚經 : 52
                                                                                                    • 祖堂集 : 49
                                                                                                    • 孟子 : 43
                                                                                                    • 孝經 : 39
                                                                                                    • 禮記 : 26
                                                                                                    • 百喻經 : 26
                                                                                                    • 莊子 : 25
                                                                                                    • 戰國策 : 24
                                                                                                    • 陸機集十一卷 : 23
                                                                                                    • 臨濟錄 : 23
                                                                                                    • 韓詩外傳 : 16
                                                                                                    • 阮籍集四卷 : 15
                                                                                                    • 論衡 : 15
                                                                                                    • 史記 : 12
                                                                                                    • 妙法蓮華經 : 10
                                                                                                    • 管子 : 10
                                                                                                    • 六祖壇經 : 8
                                                                                                    • 毛詩 : 8
                                                                                                    • 尚書 : 7
                                                                                                    • 春秋穀梁傳 : 6
                                                                                                    • 墨子 : 5
                                                                                                    • 列子 : 5
                                                                                                    • 類說 : 5
                                                                                                    • 楚辭 : 5
                                                                                                    • 呂氏春秋 : 5
                                                                                                    • 韓非子 : 4
                                                                                                    • 淮南子 : 4
                                                                                                    • 論語 : 3
                                                                                                    • 太平經 : 3
                                                                                                    • 法言 : 3
                                                                                                    • 五行 : 3
                                                                                                    • 孫子 : 3
                                                                                                    • 劉義慶世說新語 : 3
                                                                                                    • 公孫龍子 : 2
                                                                                                    • 法集要頌經 : 2
                                                                                                    • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 2
                                                                                                    • 景德傳燈錄 : 1
                                                                                                    • 尹文子 : 1
                                                                                                    • 晏子春秋 : 1
                                                                                                    • 春秋繁露 : 1
                                                                                                    • 穆天子傳 : 1
                                                                                                    • 中說 : 1
                                                                                                    • 老子 : 1
                                                                                                    • 國語 : 1
                                                                                                    • 周易 : 1

                                                                                                    Words

                                                                                                       yán OC: ŋan MC: ŋi̯ɐn 211 Attributions

                                                                                                    Yán 言 is to speak up, propose, typically in public, and on one's own initiative, to maintain something, and the word can indroduce direct speech as well as occasionally very limited indirect speech.

                                                                                                    • vispeak up publicly, preach
                                                                                                    • nabactpublic speech; the making of public statements; the public expression of personal opinion
                                                                                                    • nabactword; sentence; doctrine as expressed in words
                                                                                                    • nabdispositionability to speak
                                                                                                    • nabobjectstatements of opinion, proposal; public or formal utterance which commits the speaker; pronouncement; public or formal pronouncement, public or formal suggestion; Sometimes less specifically: proposal; what one says, speech; language; public proposal, public speech, words
                                                                                                    • nadVinstrumentto V through one's words
                                                                                                    • vadVdeclaring (say): 言曰
                                                                                                    • vt(oN)speak up on a contextually determinate matter
                                                                                                    • vt(oS)say so
                                                                                                    • vt[oN]express oneself in words 能言; speak up; 提意見, come up with statements, come up with one's personal opinions; state one's personal opinion of things; make a proposal
                                                                                                    • vt+prep+N.adVdeclare in front of
                                                                                                    • vt+V[0]say that one V-s
                                                                                                    • vtoNarticulate, express; propose; maintain, propose as true; pronounce on, speak up on, speak of (other's bad points); (abstractly) speak of (orally or in writing); inform of; suggest (often formally at court)
                                                                                                    • vtoNfigurative(a document etc) says 書言之
                                                                                                    • vtoNinchoativebegin to pronounce on; start to speak on
                                                                                                    • vtoNmathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
                                                                                                    • vtoNpassivebe spoken of in public, be pronounced on in public, be said in public
                                                                                                    • vtoNpsychtalk about (oneself)
                                                                                                    • vtoNPab{S}figurativedeclare (non-orally) that S
                                                                                                    • vtoS.postVsay S 白佛言S
                                                                                                    • vtoSimperativesay!
                                                                                                    • vtoSindirect-speechsay that S
                                                                                                    • vtoSquotation(rarely with indirect speech or quasi indirect speech) say S; say that S
                                                                                                    • vtpost-.VtoNactenter into discussions with (someone)
                                                                                                    • vttoN.+Stell N: S
                                                                                                    • vttoN.+V[0]psychclaim (oneself) to V [Indirect speech!)
                                                                                                    • vttoN1.+N2take up the matter N1 with N2, speak up on matter N1 to N2
                                                                                                    • viactstart to speak
                                                                                                    • vttoN1.+prep+N2speak of N1 to N2
                                                                                                    • vt[oN]physicalpronounce words (as a parrot might be able to do)
                                                                                                    • vtoNmention; refer to; speak of
                                                                                                    • nab[post-N.]adVin his public utterings, in his speech
                                                                                                    • nab.post-Nmessage/pronouncement of N
                                                                                                    • vtoNderivedunmarked nominalisation: to speak up on N
                                                                                                    • nab[.post-N]one's literary formulations; one's literary production, one's words; one's diction
                                                                                                    • viactuse language
                                                                                                       yuē OC: ɢʷad MC: ɦi̯ɐt 111 Attributions

                                                                                                    The most colourless and general way of referring to any act of saying attributed to any subject, no matter whether animate or inanimate, something is yuē 曰, and the verb introduces direct speech.

                                                                                                    • vt(0)oSone says; you say; it is said, as in 故曰 "thus it is said", German: "Daher heisst es..." cf. MO 於《武觀》曰:"In the Wǔguān IT says..." 於《仲虺之告》曰: 於先王之書《仲虺之告》曰:
                                                                                                    • vtoNmention; mention (the word X); use (an expression)
                                                                                                    • vtoS.post-Vsay (modified by a deverbal adverb) 且曰 [[But what about the construction of the preceding V as a main verb? 待考 CH]]
                                                                                                    • vtoS.postV(heard) as follows 聞之曰
                                                                                                    • vtoScontinuego on to say: "S" (with omitted subject)
                                                                                                    • vtoSdirect-speechsay: S
                                                                                                    • vtoSfigurativesay S (as of the mind)
                                                                                                    • vtoSfigurativerun (as follows); say something to the effect that S 不曰
                                                                                                    • vtoSimperativeyou should say!, say!
                                                                                                    • vtoSindirect-speechto say, that A; to declare that S
                                                                                                    • vtoStransmitted speechto say (on behalf of somebody): "S"
                                                                                                    • vtoSof texts, untensed: say, run as follow, "lauten"
                                                                                                       yǔ OC: ŋaʔ MC: ŋi̯ɤ 40 Attributions

                                                                                                    Yǔ 語 is to say something as part of typically informal conversation. Contrast yù 語 "tell, inform" in REPORT.

                                                                                                    • nabacttalk; (often negative:) chatter
                                                                                                    • nabtextwhat is said > discourse (this can refer to spoken word and the written word); message
                                                                                                    • nadVverbally; by use of words/speech
                                                                                                    • viactengage in a dialogue; talk along, chatter
                                                                                                    • vt[oN]say something
                                                                                                    • vt+Vt.oSsay that 語曰
                                                                                                    • vtoN.+VtoStell N: S 語x曰:
                                                                                                    • vtoN.+VtoSN=nonhutell N, saying
                                                                                                    • vtoNnegativetalk loosely about (pejorative); speak informally in favour of
                                                                                                    • vtoNtalk about
                                                                                                    • vtoNN=audiencespeak to
                                                                                                    • vtoNN=topicspeak of N
                                                                                                    • vtoSspeak of the fact that S
                                                                                                    • vttoN.+Stell N S
                                                                                                    言語   yán yǔ OC: ŋan ŋaʔ MC: ŋi̯ɐn ŋi̯ɤ 29 Attributions
                                                                                                    • NPab{N1=N2}actSPEAKING UP AND CONVERSING> use of language
                                                                                                    • NPabactspeech; way of talking
                                                                                                    • NPabtextspeech, phrase
                                                                                                    • NPadNoral; based on words
                                                                                                    • VPiactspeak, talk
                                                                                                       yún OC: ɢun MC: ɦi̯un 25 Attributions

                                                                                                    Yún 云 is used of books as well as persons and tends to refer to what are typically construed as authoritative acts of saying, and the word often has to be taken figuratively as "run as follows".

                                                                                                    • nabactutterances, way of talking
                                                                                                    • viact(generally) speak, use language; speak up
                                                                                                    • vitransitiveof persons, tensed: say so, say it; talk about it; sometimes of non-human and non-speaking subjects, by extension: express it
                                                                                                    • vt[0]oSone says S
                                                                                                    • vtoNpassivebe spoken about, be mentioned
                                                                                                    • vtoNPab{S}indirect-speechsay that S 卜云其吉 !!!
                                                                                                    • vtoSS=indirect.speechsay that
                                                                                                    • vtoSsubject=human(often used within the scope of other verbs of speaking like yuē 曰) untensed, of persons, vt: (generally tend to) say, (generally tend to) claim:; (untensed) say:
                                                                                                    • vtoSsubject=humansay as follows, speak as follows
                                                                                                    • vtoSsubject=textof texts, untensed: say, run as follows, German: lauten
                                                                                                    • vt(oS)say the same thing
                                                                                                    • vt(oN)express this contextually determinate thing vividly
                                                                                                    • vt[oN]speak so, say so
                                                                                                       cí OC: zɯ MC: zɨ 24 Attributions

                                                                                                    Cí 辭 is primarily an act of careful articulation and rhetorical formulation.

                                                                                                    • nabtexttext; formulation, statement; sentence; rhetoric CHECK EXAMPLES
                                                                                                    • nabsubmittedspeech; formal submission, also in written form
                                                                                                    • vtoNsay formally; explain properly
                                                                                                    • nab.adVin words
                                                                                                       dào OC: ɡ-luuʔ MC: dɑu 23 Attributions

                                                                                                    Dào 道 "speak of with authority, speak of adequately; quote" often involves quotation or especially serious discussion of important points, or the relating of important evidence.

                                                                                                    • viactspeak up
                                                                                                    • vt.red(oN)speak, speak!
                                                                                                    • vt(oN1.)post-VtoN2tell N2 a contextually defined N1
                                                                                                    • vt[0](oN)imperativespeak! say it!
                                                                                                    • vt[0]oSit is said that
                                                                                                    • vtoNcite, quote; advocate, maintain (that); mention; bring up as a subject
                                                                                                    • vtoNpsychspeak about (oneself)
                                                                                                    • vtoSsay S
                                                                                                    • vtoSimperativesay "..."!
                                                                                                    • vtoSS=indirect.speechsay that S
                                                                                                    • vt(oN)speak of a contextually determined object
                                                                                                    • vtoNpassivebe quoted, be advocated
                                                                                                    • vt[oN]be spoken about; be quoted
                                                                                                       shuō OC: lʰod MC: ɕiɛt 19 Attributions
                                                                                                    • nabactspeech; discourse
                                                                                                    • vtoN.+Vsay that N V-s
                                                                                                    • vtoN.+VtoSpronounce a text N which says S
                                                                                                    • vtoNN=topicmention talk about
                                                                                                    • vtoNobject=textuse words N; pronounce (a text etc); preach (a sutra)
                                                                                                    • vtoSmaintain S; say S
                                                                                                    • nab[.post-N]their explanatory discourse
                                                                                                       chēng OC: thjɯŋ MC: tɕhɨŋ 13 Attributions

                                                                                                    Chēng 稱 refers in a rather formal historian's style to the making of statements. See also NAME.

                                                                                                    • viactengage in speaking, formulate oneself
                                                                                                    • vtoN1. with quasi-indirect speech vt: declare, say that; with direct speech quotation, vt: quote, bring up the saying: "..."; say:...
                                                                                                    • vtoNobject=causespeak of (something) by way of explanation, refer to (something) as an explanation
                                                                                                    • vtoNobject=quotationutter; quote; shout:... 稱萬歲
                                                                                                    • vtoNreflexive.己speak of (oneself) (typically by way of explanation), declare (oneself) responsible
                                                                                                    • vttoN.+V[0]reflexive.自say that oneself V-s
                                                                                                    • vttoN{PIVOT}.+N{PRED}reflexive.自claim oneself to be N
                                                                                                    • vtoSsay S, maintain that S
                                                                                                       wèi OC: ɢuds MC: ɦɨi 12 Attributions

                                                                                                    Wèi 謂 introduces speech in a rather formal way that comes close in function to the mode of indirect speech although syntactically it introduces direct speech. See NAME.

                                                                                                    • vtoSquotationsay: S
                                                                                                    • vttoN.+V[0]say about N that it V-s
                                                                                                    • vttoN{PIVOT}.+S{QUOTE}psychsay about (oneself) that S
                                                                                                    • vt(oN)say, mention (a contextually determinate fact)
                                                                                                    • vtoNpronounce
                                                                                                    白言   bái yán OC: braaɡ ŋan MC: bɣɛk ŋi̯ɐn 12 Attributions
                                                                                                    • vtoSquotationsay politely
                                                                                                       tán OC: ɡ-laam MC: dɑm 10 Attributions

                                                                                                    Tán 談 refers to informal chatter, mostly with some pejorative connotation.

                                                                                                    • nabactchattering, chatter; holding forth
                                                                                                    • vadNchattering, talkative
                                                                                                    • viacttalk (typically with fluency and ease)
                                                                                                    • vt(oN)talk about the contextually determinate matter
                                                                                                    • vtoNnegativechatter about
                                                                                                    • vtoNspeak of, mention
                                                                                                    言曰   yán yuē OC: ŋan ɢʷad MC: ŋi̯ɐn ɦi̯ɐt 10 Attributions
                                                                                                    • VPtoSquotationdeclare that S, state that S; make the announcement S
                                                                                                       jǔ OC: klaʔ MC: ki̯ɤ 9 Attributions

                                                                                                    Jǔ 舉 is a technical term referring to the bringing up of a subject, and the subject of this verb is always a person, not a text.

                                                                                                    • viactmake suggestions, bring things up in formal discussion
                                                                                                    • vt(oN)mention, bring up, cite (with contextually determinate N)
                                                                                                    • vt+prep+Ncite something to, bring something orally up to
                                                                                                    • vtoNuse as a word; bring up; cite
                                                                                                       huà OC: ɡroods MC: ɦɣɛi 8 Attributions
                                                                                                    • nabtextwhat is said > phrase, saying
                                                                                                       shēng OC: qjeŋ MC: ɕiɛŋ 6 Attributions
                                                                                                    • nabactway of speaking; facon de parler DC: 3.指言語。《孟子·公孫丑上》:"無嚴諸侯,惡聲至,必反之。" 焦循 正義:"惡聲,猶惡言也。"《史記·樂毅列傳》:"臣聞古之君子,交絕不出惡聲。" 清 陳澧 《東塾讀書記·小學》:"意者象乎事物而構之者也,聲者象乎意而宣之者也。"
                                                                                                    • nabtextbound morpheme, in 聲聞: probably refers to sermon heard from the Buddha
                                                                                                       chén OC: ɡrliŋ MC: ɖin 6 Attributions
                                                                                                    • vadNpassiveputr forward, uttered
                                                                                                    • viactexpress an opinion, put something forward
                                                                                                    • vt(oN)imperativespeak about a contextually determiate thing
                                                                                                    • vtoNexpress (a promise etc), put forward (a statement etc)
                                                                                                    宣言   xuān yán OC: sqon ŋan MC: siɛn ŋi̯ɐn 6 Attributions
                                                                                                    • NPabactpublic declaration
                                                                                                    • VPt(oN)make the contextually determinate announcement
                                                                                                    • VPt+.VtoSdeclare publicly
                                                                                                    • VPt+prep+N.+VtoSdeclare S to N
                                                                                                    • VPtoSdeclare: S
                                                                                                    • VPttoN.+Sdeclare that S
                                                                                                    • VPttoN1.+prep+N2declare N1 to N2
                                                                                                    語言   yǔ yán OC: ŋaʔ ŋan MC: ŋi̯ɤ ŋi̯ɐn 6 Attributions
                                                                                                    • NPabacttalk; overt talk; speech, use of languageBUDDH: lingusitic articulation
                                                                                                    • VPiactspeak
                                                                                                    • VPtt(oN.)+Ssay S to N
                                                                                                    語話   yǔ huà OC: ŋaʔ ɡroods MC: ŋi̯ɤ ɦɣɛi 6 Attributions
                                                                                                    • NPabtextwhat is said > utterance, (spoken) phrase
                                                                                                    • VPiactto speak, have a conversation, converse
                                                                                                    • VPtoNto speak with, to have a discussion with
                                                                                                       yǐn OC: liŋʔ MC: jin 4 Attributions
                                                                                                    • vtoNPab{S}cite; bring up
                                                                                                       bái OC: braaɡ MC: bɣɛk 4 Attributions
                                                                                                    • nabtextwhat has been said
                                                                                                    • vtoNpronounce, enunciate
                                                                                                    • vtt(oN1.)+N2speak of the contextually determinate N1 to N2
                                                                                                    • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2report the contextually determinate matter N1 to the audience N2
                                                                                                    • vttoN.+Saddress oneself politely to a superior
                                                                                                       chū OC: khljud MC: tɕhʷit 3 Attributions
                                                                                                    • vadNspoken
                                                                                                    • vtoNput forward or advocate (a certain intellectual position); utter
                                                                                                    • vtoNpassive(of words) be uttered
                                                                                                    • vtoNutter
                                                                                                    句語   jù yǔ OC: kos ŋaʔ MC: ki̯o ŋi̯ɤ 3 Attributions
                                                                                                    • NPabtextphrase, sentence, text passage
                                                                                                    開口   kāi kǒu OC: khɯɯl khooʔ MC: khəi khu 3 Attributions
                                                                                                    • VPiinchoativestart to speak
                                                                                                    作是言   zuò shì yán OC: tsaaɡ ɡljeʔ ŋan MC: tsɑk dʑiɛ ŋi̯ɐn 3 Attributions
                                                                                                    • VPtoSquotationsay; say to oneself
                                                                                                       kǒu OC: khooʔ MC: khu 2 Attributions
                                                                                                    • nfigurative"mouths"> person in so far as he speaks; speaker
                                                                                                    • nabactloose talk; way of talking; act of speaking
                                                                                                    • nwhat one emits from one's mouth > speech, spec. neg. defamatory speech
                                                                                                       zhǔ OC: tjoɡ MC: tɕi̯ok 2 Attributions
                                                                                                    • vtoNspeak to (someone)
                                                                                                       cí OC: sɢlɯ MC: zɨ 2 Attributions
                                                                                                    • nabtextutterance, expression
                                                                                                       liǎng OC: raŋʔ MC: li̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions
                                                                                                    • NPabactBUDDH: speech with sows discord; skr. paiṣunya, pali pisuṇā-vācā (one of the ten evil deeds, in some Chinese classification systems regarded as only minor offence)
                                                                                                    • VPiactspeak with two tongues
                                                                                                    出言   chū yán OC: khljud ŋan MC: tɕhʷit ŋi̯ɐn 2 Attributions
                                                                                                    • VPiactspeak
                                                                                                    • VPtoSquotationsay: S
                                                                                                    惡口   è kǒu OC: qaaɡ khooʔ MC: ʔɑk khu 2 Attributions
                                                                                                    • NPabactBUDDH: evil speech (this is one of the activities included in the 'ten evil deeds' and refers to rude and vulgar speech, or speech in which one slanders other people)
                                                                                                    • VPiactengage in evil speech
                                                                                                    曰若   yuē ruò OC: ɢʷad njaɡ MC: ɦi̯ɐt ȵi̯ɐk 2 Attributions
                                                                                                    • VPt(0)oSThe text runs as follows: ??? [Meaning and syntax unclear and highly controversial!]
                                                                                                    言詞   yán cí OC: ŋan sɢlɯ MC: ŋi̯ɐn zɨ 2 Attributions
                                                                                                    • NPabtextwords, speech
                                                                                                    談語   tán yǔ OC: ɡ-laam ŋaʔ MC: dɑm ŋi̯ɤ 2 Attributions
                                                                                                    • VPiacttalk along, keep engaging in conversation
                                                                                                    諮白   zī bái OC: sti braaɡ MC: tsi bɣɛk 2 Attributions
                                                                                                    • VPtt(oN1.)+N2report, tell the contextually determinate N1 to the person N2
                                                                                                    • VPttoN.+Sreport/tell S to the person N
                                                                                                    辭命   cí mìng OC: zɯ mɢreŋs MC: zɨ mɣaŋ 2 Attributions
                                                                                                    • NPab{N1=N2}nonreferentialmaking formulations; rhetorics
                                                                                                       fù MC: bjuwk OC: buɡ 2 Attributions
                                                                                                    • vtoNtry to say in argument, get at in dialogue
                                                                                                       nán OC: rnoom MC: ɳɣɛm 1 Attribution
                                                                                                    • vi.red:adNonomatopoeiawith a low voice, with a mumbling sound
                                                                                                    • vi.redonomatopoeiato speak with a low voice, to whisper (sometimes also referring to imitating the sounds of birds)
                                                                                                       chí OC: ɡrlɯ MC: ɖɨ 1 Attribution
                                                                                                    • vtoNmaintain (a claim), take the position that; maintain (a set standard)
                                                                                                    • vtoNpassivebe maintained, be upheld as an intellectual position
                                                                                                       zhào OC: kljews MC: tɕiɛu 1 Attribution
                                                                                                    • viactspeak up formally to make an important point
                                                                                                    • vtoNconvey a message to N
                                                                                                       míng OC: mreŋ MC: mɣaŋ 1 Attribution
                                                                                                    • viactspeak up
                                                                                                       qí OC: dziil MC: dzei 1 Attribution
                                                                                                    • viactspeak the Qí dialect
                                                                                                    口說   kǒu shuō OC: khooʔ lʰod MC: khu ɕiɛt 1 Attribution
                                                                                                    • NPabactovert speech (as opposed to real attitude or thought)
                                                                                                    持論   chí lùn OC: ɡrlɯ ɡ-ruuns MC: ɖɨ luo̝n 1 Attribution
                                                                                                    • VPiactexpress opinions; hold one's own in discussion [DCD]
                                                                                                    啟曰   qǐ yuē OC: kheeʔ ɢʷad MC: khei ɦi̯ɐt 1 Attribution
                                                                                                    • VPtoSquotationbegin as follows> say
                                                                                                    舌頭   shé tóu OC: sbljed doo MC: ʑiɛt du 1 Attribution
                                                                                                    • NPabtongue > words, utterance
                                                                                                    言辭   yán cí OC: ŋan zɯ MC: ŋi̯ɐn zɨ 1 Attribution
                                                                                                    • NPabactformulations; speeches
                                                                                                    話頭   huà tóu OC: ɡroods doo MC: ɦɣɛi du 1 Attribution
                                                                                                    • NPabin the Chan BUDDH. context usually referring to a phrase used for teaching purposes; generally: speech ?? HAS TO BE CHECKED!
                                                                                                    說言   shuō yán OC: lʰod ŋan MC: ɕiɛt ŋi̯ɐn 1 Attribution
                                                                                                    • VPtoSexplain: S
                                                                                                    說話   shuō huà OC: lʰod ɡroods MC: ɕiɛt ɦɣɛi 1 Attribution
                                                                                                    • VPiactengage in converstation, talk to each other, engage in small-talk, chatter
                                                                                                    轉話   zhuǎn huà OC: tonʔ ɡroods MC: ʈiɛn ɦɣɛi 1 Attribution
                                                                                                    • NPabChan BUDDH: a 'turning' word (utterance which can trigger an insight in the student)
                                                                                                    橫說豎說   héng shuō shù shuō OC: ɡʷraaŋ lʰod djoʔ lʰod MC: ɦɣaŋ ɕiɛt dʑi̯o ɕiɛt 1 Attribution
                                                                                                    • VPiactspeack vertically speak horizontally > engage in useless and superfluous talk; jabber; speak about this and that without focusing on a matter
                                                                                                       jí MC: gip OC: ɡrɯb 1 Attribution
                                                                                                    • vtoNbring up in speech
                                                                                                       zhōng MC: tsyuwng OC: tjuŋ 1 Attribution
                                                                                                    • vt[oN]finish one's speech, finish one's utterance
                                                                                                       shēn MC: syin OC: lʰin 1 Attribution
                                                                                                    • vtoNexpound
                                                                                                       yīn MC: 'im OC: qrɯm 1 Attribution
                                                                                                    • ndiction; way of expressing oneself
                                                                                                    笑語   xiao4 yǔ MC: -- ngjoX OC: -- ŋaʔ 1 Attribution
                                                                                                    • nabchatter mingled with laughter
                                                                                                       gào OC: kuuɡs MC: kɑu 0 Attributions
                                                                                                    • vt+V[0]say that one Vs
                                                                                                        OC:  MC:  0 Attributions
                                                                                                    • viacttalk and laugh a lot
                                                                                                       zǔn OC: tsuunʔ MC: tsuo̝n 0 Attributions
                                                                                                    • vichat, chatter
                                                                                                       tí OC: ɡ-lee MC: dei 0 Attributions
                                                                                                    • vtoNmention, bring up
                                                                                                       zhuàn OC: sɡroonʔ MC: ɖʐɣan 0 Attributions
                                                                                                    • nabtextproposal??
                                                                                                       qǐ OC: kheeʔ MC: khei 0 Attributions
                                                                                                    • vttoN.+Ssay S to N
                                                                                                       tà OC: duub MC: dəp 0 Attributions
                                                                                                    • viactbabble
                                                                                                       fā OC: pod MC: pi̯ɐt 0 Attributions
                                                                                                    • vtoNutter
                                                                                                       guō OC: kood MC: kʷɑt 0 Attributions
                                                                                                    • viacttalk ceaselessly
                                                                                                       qǐng OC: tsheŋʔ MC: tshiɛŋ 0 Attributions
                                                                                                    • vt+V[0]suggest (as an inferior) that one should V, beg to V; ask permission (to do something one is offering to do in serving one's superiors);
                                                                                                       tán OC: ɡ-luum MC: dəm 0 Attributions
                                                                                                    • vtoNmention, talk about
                                                                                                       dǎng OC: taaŋʔ MC: tɑŋ 0 Attributions
                                                                                                    • viSHUOWEN: 直言也。be outspoken
                                                                                                    匈匈   xiōng xiōng OC: qhoŋ qhoŋ MC: hi̯oŋ hi̯oŋ 0 Attributions
                                                                                                    • NPabactbabble; gossip
                                                                                                    囁嚅   niè rú OC: ŋɡljeb njo MC: ȵiɛp ȵi̯o 0 Attributions
                                                                                                    • NPabactwhisperings
                                                                                                    多謝   duō xiè OC: k-laal MC: tɑ zɣɛ 0 Attributions
                                                                                                    • VPtt(oN1.)+N2impress the contextually determinate N1 upon the N2
                                                                                                    妄語   wàng yǔ OC: maŋs ŋaʔ MC: mi̯ɐŋ ŋi̯ɤ 0 Attributions
                                                                                                    • NPabactBUDDH: deluded/false speech (one of the ten evil deeds; also referred to as xūwàngyǔ 虛妄語, xūkuángyǔ 虛誑語, wàngshé 妄舌)
                                                                                                    德音   dé yīn OC: tɯɯɡ qrɯm MC: tək ʔim 0 Attributions
                                                                                                    • NPabactfriendly diplomatic messages
                                                                                                    矢口   shǐ kǒu OC: lʰiʔ khooʔ MC: ɕi khu 0 Attributions
                                                                                                    • VPiactlet fly from the mouth> speak freely, be spontaneous in one's speech 漢 揚雄 《法言‧五百》:"聖人矢口而成言,肆筆而成書。"
                                                                                                    舉言   jǔ yán OC: klaʔ ŋan MC: ki̯ɤ ŋi̯ɐn 0 Attributions
                                                                                                    • VPiactbegin to speak
                                                                                                    言云   yán yún OC: ŋan ɢun MC: ŋi̯ɐn ɦi̯un 0 Attributions
                                                                                                    • VPtoSS=indirect.speechsay: "..."
                                                                                                    話言   huà yán OC: ɡroods ŋan MC: ɦɣɛi ŋi̯ɐn 0 Attributions
                                                                                                    • NPabact(especially instructive) speech, words; (solemnly given) words
                                                                                                    詭辭   guǐ cí OC: krolʔ zɯ MC: kiɛ zɨ 0 Attributions
                                                                                                    • NPabtextsophistries
                                                                                                    道說   dào shuō OC: ɡ-luuʔ lʰod MC: dɑu ɕiɛt 0 Attributions
                                                                                                    • VPt(oN)speak about the contextually determinate N
                                                                                                        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
                                                                                                    • vt[oN]finish one's speech, finish one's utterance
                                                                                                        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
                                                                                                    • vtoNtry to say in argument, get at in dialogue
                                                                                                        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
                                                                                                    • ndiction; way of expressing oneself
                                                                                                    口舌   kǒu shé MC: khuwX zyet OC: khooʔ sbljed 0 Attributions
                                                                                                    • NPabuse of words, use of speech; words (as instruments)

                                                                                                    Existing SW for

                                                                                                    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: