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INQUIREQUERYWANT TO KNOWQUESTIONINTERROGATEQUIZ
Old Chinese Criteria

[ASCENDING/DESCENDING]

[[COMMON/RARE]]

[GENERAL/SPECIFIC]

[INFORMAL/OFFICIAL]

1. The general word is wèn 問 "open a dialogue by consulting someone with a question" (ant. duì 對 "reply to a superior") which typically refers to the consultation of a person who is supposed to know something. When the adressee is explicit, the questioner is typically of higher status than the addressee, and the reply is correspondingly often phrased politely as duì yuē 對曰. When there is no explicit addressee (X asked about Y), the addressee often is of higher status (e.g. a teacher).

[SPECIFIC]; [[COMMOM+]]

2. Qǐng 請 is occasionally used to refer to polite requests for information.

[[RARE]]

3. Nàn 難 is to ask intellectually hostile questions regarding something which the person questioned has said or maintains as true, to make objections. See DISAGREE and REFUTE which are difficult to distinguish from each other and from this.

[SPECIFIC], [HORIZONTAL]

4. Fǎng 訪 typically refers to questioning addressed to superiors.

[ASCENDING]

5. Xún 詢 typically refers to rather formal questions addressed to inferiors.

[DESCENDING], [OFFICIAL]

6. Zī 諮/咨 refers to questions addressed to a specialist.

[SPECIFIC]

7. Zōu 諏 all refer to some kind of official soliciting of formal opinions.

[OFFICIAL]; [[RARE]]

8. Yuē 曰 is regularly used to introduce related questions as reactions within an ongoing dialogue.

9. Wèi 謂 may introduce what are in fact questions rather than statements.

Modern Chinese Criteria

問 is the general word referring to the asking of questions.

發問 focusses specifically on the initiative of the questioner posing a question.

提問 focusses specifically on the nature of the question asked.

訊問 focusses specifically on the process of eliicting answers to a question from someone.

問訊 is a rather formal or literary word referring to making polite inquiries.

叩問 is a polite literary way of referring to the posing of a question.

叩 is an obsolescent highly literary and obscure word for asking questions.

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis 18.11.2003. CH /

APRESJAN 2004 Novyj objasnitel'nyj Slovar' Sinonimov Russkogo Jazyka 1095

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 18.31

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

ASK

rogare is to ask a question because one demands to know the answer.

interrogare refers to a question which is a request for an answer, often an anwer involving the attitudes of the addressee, and according to Quintilian involves the readiness of the questioner to enter into an argument about the answer.

percontari refers to a question based on a strong desire to know and understand the answer, and according to Quintilian this simply involves a desire to know.

sciscitari refers to a question about certain facts assumed to be objectively known, and typically this type of question is for ulterior motives.

quaerere is to ask a question because in the spirit of honest inquiry.

requirere is to try to get informed about something, often routinely.

Impersonal:

quaeritur "The question is..."

quaestionem ponere, affere,

quaestio oritur, exoritur, nascitur

Nominalised:

interrogatio refers to the act of questioning.

dubitatio refers to a doubtful question.

quaestio refers to an open question which is the subject of intellectual inquiry.

percontatio refers to a (typically persistent) attempt to get information.

interrogatiuncula refers to petty questioning on matters of no consequence.

quaestiuncula refers to a petty problem.

disceptatiuncula refers to a petty eristic discussion.

Reflexive:

interrogare me ipse coepi "I have begun to ask myself"

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 47

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 3.1131

HINTERFRAGEN

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 7.1399

SCHMIDT 1889 Handbuch der lateinischen und griechischen Synonymik 14

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 1273

問,訊,詰

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 1287

咨,諮,詢

BORCHERT 2005 The Encyclopedia of Philosophy 10.32

QUESTION

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.219.181

QUESTIONNER.INTERROGER.DEMANDER

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.226/7

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 76B

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 119
  • vtoS : 66
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2 : 46
  • VPt[0]oS : 42
  • vt+prep+N.adV : 37
  • vtoN.+V : 35
  • VPtoS : 34
  • vt+prep+N : 24
  • nab : 21
  • vt(oN.)+V : 20
  • VPt[0]oNab : 18
  • VPt[0]oN : 15
  • vtt(oN1.)+N2 : 13
  • vt(oN) : 11
  • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2 : 8
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2:adVtoS : 8
  • vtoN.+VtoS : 8
  • VPtoN : 6
  • vttoN1.+N2 : 5
  • VPi : 5
  • vtoNab[act] : 5
  • vttoN.+S : 5
  • vtoNPab{S} : 5
  • vtt+prep+N.oS : 4
  • vt.postN : 3
  • vt(oS) : 3
  • DELETE : 2
  • vtt(oN1.)( prep N) : 1
  • vtt(oN.) S : 1
  • vttoN1(.+N2) : 1
  • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2:+V : 1
  • VPt+prep+N : 1
  • VPt[0]oNab{S} : 1
  • nab.t:+prep+N : 1
  • VPt(oN) : 1
  • VPt[oN] : 1
  • VPadN : 1
  • VPtt+prep+N.oS : 1
  • vt[oN] : 1
  • nab.t : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 128
  • 論語 : 126
  • 春秋左傳 : 70
  • 管子 : 38
  • 禮記 : 36
  • 孟子 : 35
  • 莊子 : 24
  • 說苑 : 23
  • 賢愚經 : 14
  • 韓詩外傳 : 13
  • 百喻經 : 10
  • 臨濟錄 : 10
  • 呂氏春秋 : 7
  • 荀子 : 5
  • 列子 : 5
  • 晏子春秋 : 4
  • 祖堂集 : 4
  • 黃帝內經 : 3
  • 尚書 : 3
  • 論衡 : 2
  • 孝經 : 2
  • 申鑒 : 2
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 2
  • 毛詩 : 2
  • 史記 : 2
  • 法言 : 2
  • 六祖壇經 : 2
  • 類說 : 1
  • 新序 : 1
  • 戰國策 : 1
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1
  • : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1

Words

   wèn OC: mɯns MC: mi̯un 364 Attributions

The general word is wèn 問 "open a dialogue by consulting someone with a question" (ant. duì 對 "reply to a superior") which typically refers to the consultation of a person who is supposed to know something, and typically the person to whom a question is addressed is regarded in the context as an authority though not necessarily a person of superior status. Thus the word, while extremely common, is not really a general word for "to ask". [SPECIFIC]; [[COMMOM+]]

  • nab.t:(+prep+N)questions to a contextually determinate interlocutor
  • nab.t:+prep+Nacta question directed at N
  • nab.tquestion for N
  • nabact大哉問form of words used to ask a question; question uttered
  • vt.postNask about N 每事問
  • vt(oN.)+Vask a contextually determinate person (and say) 問曰
  • vt(oN)切問而近思conduct consultations of one who are supposed to know
  • vt(oN)imperativeask about the contextually determinate matter N
  • vt(oS)ask the contextually determinate question 又問
  • vt[0]+V[0]subject=indefiniteIt is asked, the question arose:... (with an irrelevant omitted indefinite subject)
  • vt+prep+N.adV問於N曰 ZHUANG 問乎N曰
  • vt+prep+Nask questions of 問於
  • vt+prep+Nobject=matterask about (a subject matter)
  • vtoN.+VN=interlocutorask interlocutor N and say: 問師曠曰
  • vtoN.+VN=subject matterasked about N (and said) 問之曰
  • vtoNN=questionask the question N 問話
  • vtoNN=informationto ask for relevant information about 問其故, 問他
  • vtoNobject=interlocutorconsult an interlocutor 問知"ask those who know"
  • vtoNobject=problemask about (something or someone to be discussed) 問政
  • vtoNpassivebe asked about 未可問
  • vtoNab[act]ask about Xing 問為仁
  • vtoNPab{S}ask about (with mostly nominalised sentential object) 問其所以異
  • vtoSobject=speechask and say (: "...", with direct object without yuē 曰)
  • vtt(oN1.)+N2N2=interlocutorask N2 about the contextually determinate N1 問左右
  • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2omto ask (somebody N2) about something contextually determinate N1 問於孔子
  • DELETEask (a person) about something contextually determinate 問於曾子
  • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2:+Vask N2 about the contextually determinate matter N1 問焉曰:
  • vtt+prep+N.oSask the question S of N 問於N: S
  • vttoN.+Squotationask the question S of interlocutor N 問N:
  • vttoN1.+N2ask N2 about N1問之仲尼
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2ask (someone N2) about (something N1) 問孝於我
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2:adVtoS問N1於N2曰
  • vttoN1(.+N2)consult (a person N1) about a determinate thing N2
  • vtt(oN1.)( prep N)ask the contextually determinate person N1 questions concerning the topic N2
  • vtt(oN.) Sask the contextually determinate interlocutor N the question S
請問   qǐng wèn OC: tsheŋʔ mɯns MC: tshiɛŋ mi̯un 53 Attributions
  • VPt[0]oNmay I ask about N
  • VPt[0]oNab{S}may I ask about the abstract subject Nab
  • VPt[0]oNabmay I ask about the abstract subject N
  • VPt[0]oSmay I ask
  • VPt[oN]ask questions
  • VPt+.Vt[0]oSask the question S
  • VPtoNask about N
  • VPtoSask the question S
  • VPtt+prep+N.oSask the question S of N
   yuē OC: ɢʷad MC: ɦi̯ɐt 40 Attributions

Yuē 曰 is regularly used to introduce related questions as reactions within an ongoing dialogue.

  • vtoSgo on to say (i.e. ask); say (in the form of a question) in the process of a conversation
敢問   gǎn wèn OC: klaamʔ mɯns MC: kɑm mi̯un 28 Attributions
  • VPt[0]oNmay I ask about N
  • VPt[0]oSI venture to ask S
問曰   wèn yuē OC: mɯns ɢʷad MC: mi̯un ɦi̯ɐt 26 Attributions
  • VPtoSto ask (followed by direct speech)
   qǐng OC: tsheŋʔ MC: tshiɛŋ 12 Attributions

Qǐng 請 is occasionally used to refer to polite requests for information. [[RARE]]

  • vtoNask for information about
  • vtoNN=humanconsult politely
  • vttoN1.+N2ask (someone N1) for information about (a subject N2)
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2ask N2's advice about N1
  • vtoSask about the proposition S
   xún OC: sqʷlin MC: sʷin 10 Attributions

Xún 詢 typically refers to questions addressed to inferiors. [DESCENDING], [OFFICIAL]

  • vt+prep+Nask for advice
  • vtoNseek or survey the opinions of (so as to consult with)
咨 / 諮   zī OC: sti MC: tsi zī OC: sti MC: tsi 8 Attributions

Zī 諮/咨 refers to questions addressed to a specialist. [SPECIFIC] Zī 諮/咨 refers to questions addressed to a specialist. [SPECIFIC]

  • vtoNconsult; seek the opinion of (typically an important personality), engage in strategic deliberations together with to solicit advice to be used in strategic deliberation � the person one asks in this way does not participate in the deliberations proper but is of high status
  • nabactasking questions (of a specialist)
  • vtpostN{OBJ}ask the advice of, consult N
  • vt+prep+Nconsult N
  • vtoNN=topicask about
   fǎng OC: phaŋs MC: phi̯ɐŋ 7 Attributions

Fǎng 訪 typically refers to questioning addressed to superiors. [ASCENDING]

  • vt[oN]solicit opinions (among one or more people not specified)
  • vt+prep+Nsolicit information from
  • vtoNsolicit information politely from; ask (someone)for advice
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2solicit opinions (about something N1) from (someone N2) 穆公訪諸蹇叔
問言   wèn yán OC: mɯns ŋan MC: mi̯un ŋi̯ɐn 6 Attributions
  • VPtoSquotationask: S
問訊   wèn xùn OC: mɯns sɯns MC: mi̯un sin 6 Attributions
  • VPtoNask about; ask (somebody)
  • VPtt(oN.)+Sask S of N
  • vt[oN]interrogate; make inquiries
  • vtt(oN1.)+N2ask the contextually determinate N1 about N2
   gào OC: kuuɡs MC: kɑu 5 Attributions
  • vtoN.+VtoSaddress (someone) (saying/asking: "....?")
   wèi OC: ɢuds MC: ɦɨi 3 Attributions

Wèi 謂 may introduce what are in fact questions rather than statements.

  • vtoN.+VtoSaddress someone with a question
問話   wèn huà OC: mɯns ɡroods MC: mi̯un ɦɣɛi 3 Attributions
  • VPadNasking questions
  • VPiactask questions
   yán OC: ŋan MC: ŋi̯ɐn 1 Attribution
  • vtoSask: "..."
   jū OC: sko MC: tsi̯o 1 Attribution

Zōu 諏 all refer to some kind of official soliciting of formal opinions. [OFFICIAL]; [[RARE]]

  • nabactasking??
  • vtoNask the opinion of someone (particularly concerning a factual matter)
   zé OC: skreeɡ MC: ʈʂɣɛk 1 Attribution
  • vtoNdemand to know about (possibly incriminatory facts)
下問   xià wèn OC: ɢraaʔ mɯns MC: ɦɣɛ mi̯un 1 Attribution
  • VPiactconsult others of lower status
仰問   yǎng wèn OC: ŋaŋʔ mɯns MC: ŋi̯ɐŋ mi̯un 1 Attribution
  • VPtoSquotationask politely
歸問   guī wèn OC: klul mɯns MC: kɨi mi̯un 1 Attribution
  • VPt(oN)turn to for advice about a contextually determinate matter
發問   fā wèn OC: pod mɯns MC: pi̯ɐt mi̯un 1 Attribution
  • VPiactput a question; ask a question [DCD]
致問   zhì wèn OC: k-liɡs mɯns MC: ʈi mi̯un 1 Attribution
  • VPiactask questions
訪問   fǎng wèn OC: phaŋs mɯns MC: phi̯ɐŋ mi̯un 1 Attribution
  • VPt+prep+Nconsult with N
   qiú OC: ɡu MC: gɨu 1 Attribution
  • vtoNask advice of; consult
   jié OC: khid MC: khit 0 Attributions
  • nabtextquestion; objection
   nàn OC: mɢlaans MC: nɑn 0 Attributions

Nàn 難 is to ask intellectually hostile questions regarding something which the person questioned has said or maintains as true, to make objections. See DISAGREE [SPECIFIC]

  • vt[oN]question in a hostile manner; make objections in the form of questions SEE CRITICISE SJ 81/2447嘗與其父奢言兵事,奢不能難,然不謂善。
問於   wèn yú OC: mɯns qa MC: mi̯un ʔi̯ɤ 0 Attributions
    禱請   dǎo qǐng OC: tuuʔ tsheŋʔ MC: tɑu tshiɛŋ 0 Attributions
    • VPtoNask
    諮詢   zī xún OC: sti sqʷlin MC: tsi sʷin 0 Attributions
    • VPtoNask the opinion of
    質問   zhì wèn OC: tjid mɯns MC: tɕit mi̯un 0 Attributions
    • VPtoNask for advice; consult to get things straight
    顧問   gù wèn OC: klaas mɯns MC: kuo̝ mi̯un 0 Attributions
    • VPtoN.+VtoSturn to N and ask...

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: