REPORT  報告

ADDRESS others so as to CAUSE them to BECOME AWARE of a FACT.
TELLANNOUNCEDESCRIBEGIVE AN ACCOUNT OFDETAILOUTLINECOMMUNICATEDIVULGEDISCLOSEREVEALMAKE PUBLICPUBLISHBROADCASTPROCLAIMPUBLICIZE
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current word for any report or the passing on of any information is gào 告. But see also ADDRESS.

2. Yù 語 is a common word referring to informal oral notification or instruction.

3. Bào 報 and the rarer fù 復 refer to an oral report to the authorities as required by these authorities.

4. Yè 謁 refers to the transmitting of a message, typically by the ancient Chinese equivalent of a butler.

5. Wén 聞 refers to making something known to a superior or to the public at large.

6. Fěng 諷 refers to an informal (often subtly disguised) personal opinion passed on to superiors.

7. Bái 白 refers to a personal report, often urgent, and typically by an inferior to a superior, and when used among equals it is a polite form of self-deprecation.

Modern Chinese Criteria

告訴 is the current colourless general word for passing on information.

告知 is a more old-fashioned way of letting someone know something.

報告 is the current modern word for making a report.

反映 is the current word for reporting something (e.g. public views) by way of publication.

回報 / 匯報 / 彙報 is a more formal current word for a report.

上告 focusses on the upward-directedness of a report, typically made on one's own initiative.

上報 focusses on the upward-directedness of a report, typically made by orders of higher authorities.

呈報 refers to a formal, required report to the authorities.

層報 is a technical term referring to a formal required report submitted to one level above one's own.

申報 refers to a report one makes on one's own initiative to higher authorities of some sort.

稟報 (lit) refers in an elevated manner to a report made to high authorities.

密報 refers to a secret report.

呈文 (lit, obs) refers to a formal report to the authorities.

呈兒 (coll, obs) refers to a formal report to the authorities.

呈子 (lit, obs) refers to a formal report to the authorities.

簽呈 (lit, obs) refers to a formal report to the authorities.

講述

談論

講解

通風報信 refers pejoratively to the informing authorities etc. on someone.

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

APRESJAN 2004 Novyj objasnitel'nyj Slovar' Sinonimov Russkogo Jazyka 1089

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 134

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 222

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 45

WANG FENGYANG 1993 古辭辨 Gu ci bian 755

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 1279

告,誥,詔

1. Ga4o 告 is not just to inform and to warn, it also has important generalised uses "to address", occasionally even with what is a question.

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 146

T.W.HARBSMEIER 2004 A New Dictionary of Classical Greek Synonyms no. 4

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 76B

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 27
  • vtt(oN1.) N2 : 21
  • vtoN.+VtoS : 17
  • vttoN1.post-vt(oN2) : 15
  • vttoN1.+N2 : 13
  • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2 : 12
  • vtt(oN1.)postvt(oN2{OBJ}) : 8
  • vtt(oN1.)(+N2) : 8
  • vt[oN] : 8
  • VPi : 7
  • vttoN1:postvtoN2 : 7
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2 : 5
  • vttoN1+.vtoN2 : 5
  • vtt[oN1.]+N2 : 4
  • VPtoN : 4
  • VPtt(oN.)+S : 4
  • vt(oN.)+V : 3
  • vt+prep+N.adVtoS : 3
  • vttoN.+S : 2
  • vttoN1(.+N2) : 2
  • vttoN1.+N2:adV : 2
  • vttoN1.postvt(oN2{OBJ}) : 2
  • VPtt(oN1.)+N2 : 2
  • VPtt(oN1.)(+N2) : 2
  • VPttoN.+S : 2
  • vt(oN.)adV : 2
  • n : 1
  • vtt(oN.) S : 1
  • vttoN1. N2:-V : 1
  • VPt(oN) : 1
  • VPt[+prep+N] : 1
  • nab : 1
  • VPtoS : 1
  • vttoN:+.vt+Nab{S} : 1
  • vttoN.-vtoNab{S} : 1
  • v[adN] : 1
  • vtoS : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 52
  • 韓非子 : 38
  • 孟子 : 24
  • 論語 : 15
  • 賢愚經 : 13
  • 戰國策 : 11
  • 管子 : 11
  • 說苑 : 9
  • 荀子 : 8
  • 呂氏春秋 : 4
  • 禮記 : 3
  • 祖堂集 : 3
  • 太平經 : 1
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 莊子 : 1
  • 百喻經 : 1
  • 孝經 : 1
  • 史記 : 1
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 1

Words

   gào OC: kuuɡs MC: kɑu 105 Attributions

The current word for any report or the passing on of any information is gào 告. But see also ADDRESS.

  • v[adN]nonreferentialthose who report> denunciators
  • vt(oN.)+Vtell a contextually determinate person: 告曰
  • vt[oN]give information
  • vt+prep+N.adVtoSreport (to someone) (and say) 告於...曰 (NB: the subject of 告 is the same as that of 曰)
  • vtoN.+VtoStell (someone) (and say...) 告之曰 (directed at superiors or inferiors)
  • vtoNtell about (something); report on (something); pass on (information); announce (primarily to superiors, but occasionally also to respected inferiors or indeed to anyone at all), declare
  • vtt(oN1.)(+N2)pass on the determinate information to the determinate audience
  • vtt(oN1.)+N2ominform a (an audience N1) about something determinate N2, report about something determinate to (someone N1); send word to (someone N1)
  • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2omreport about a determinate matter N1 to (someone N2)
  • vtt(oN1.)postvt(oN2{OBJ})tell a contextually determinate person about a contextually determinate matter 以告
  • vttoN:+.vt+Nab{S}indirect-speechreport to N that S
  • vttoN.-vtoNab{S}report (to somebody) about a fact
  • vttoN1:postvtoN2tell (someone N1) about (something N2) 以x告y
  • vttoN1.+N2tell addressee N1 about the subject N2 告之悔 "told him about his regrets"
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2report (a message N1) to (an audience N2)
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2N1=audiencereport (a message N2) to (an audience N1)告諸往而知來者
  • vttoN1.post-vt(oN2)inform (somebody N1) about a contextually determinate matter N2 以告x
  • vttoN1+.vtoN2report (to an audience N1) (about something N2)
  • viactOBI: make a formal report to the ancestors
  • vttoN.+Stell N that S
  • nabtextreport
  • vtt(oN1.) N2N2=humaninform N2 about the contextually determinate matter N1
  • vtt[oN1.]+N2N2=humaninform N2 about the lexically determinate matter N1; tell N2 about things
   yù OC: ŋas MC: ŋi̯ɤ 26 Attributions

Yù 語 is a common word referring to informal oral notification or instruction.

  • vtoNreport to; notify (someone), let someone know
  • vtt(oN1.)+N2tell something determinate N1 to (a person N2)
  • vttoN1.+N2tell addresse N1 about subject N2 語之故 "tell him the reason"
  • vttoN1(.+N2)omtell (someone N1) about a contextually determinate matter N2
  • vttoN1+.vtoN2to tell (somebody), that...(indirect speech introduced by 以)
  • vttoN1.postvt(oN2{OBJ})report
  • vttoN.+Stell N that S
   bào OC: puuɡs MC: pɑu 15 Attributions

Bào 報 and the rarer fù 復 refer to an oral report to the authorities as required by these authorities.

  • nreport
  • vt(oN.)adVreporting to a contextually determinate person (say...)
  • vt[oN]report back (to the authorities)
  • vtoN.+VtoSreport to N and say:...
  • vtoNmake a report, as requested, typically to authorities
  • vtoSreport that
  • vtt(oN1.)+N2report on a contextually determinate matter N1 to an audience N2
   yè OC: qad MC: ʔi̯ɐt 11 Attributions

Yè 謁 refers to the transmitting of a message, typically by the ancient Chinese equivalent of a butler.

  • vtoNtransmit (a message), announce; report
  • vtoNobject=visitorannounce the arrival of; act as butler cf. yèzhě 謁者 "butler"
  • vttoN1.+N2:adVreport (a fact N1) to (an audience N2) and V
  • vttoN1.+N2report (a crime N1) to (the authorities N2) 謁之吏
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2pay a visit and report N1 to N2
   fù OC: buɡ MC: buk 6 Attributions

Bào 報 and the rarer fù 復 refer to an oral report to the authorities as required by these authorities.

  • vt[oN]make an (unquantified general) report
  • vtoNreport (to a superior)
  • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2report on the contextually determinate matter to N2
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2formally report or announce N1 to N2
  • nreport
復命   fù mìng OC: buɡ mɢreŋs MC: buk mɣaŋ 6 Attributions
  • VPireport to superordinates/autorities on one's mission
  • VPtoNannounce to the authorities
  • VPt(oN)report back to authorities on the contextually determinate subject N
告言   gào yán OC: kuuɡs ŋan MC: kɑu ŋi̯ɐn 4 Attributions
  • VPtt(oN.)+Squotationtell N that S
   wén OC: mɯn MC: mi̯un 3 Attributions

Wén 聞 refers to making something known to a superior or to the public at large.

  • vtoNcausativeannounce formally, let (someone) know something
   bái OC: braaɡ MC: bɣɛk 2 Attributions

Bái 白 refers to a personal report, often urgent, and typically by an inferior to a superior, and when used among equals it is a polite form of self-deprecation.

  • vtt(oN1.)+N2announce the message N1 to N2
  • vttoN1:postvtoN2report on N2 to N1
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2announce the message N1 to the audience N2
  • vttoN1(.+N2)report N1 to the contextually determinate N2
宣語   xuān yù OC: sqon ŋas MC: siɛn ŋi̯ɤ 2 Attributions
  • VPttoN.+Sannounce to N that S
昭告   zhāo gào OC: kljew kuuɡs MC: tɕiɛu kɑu 2 Attributions
  • VPtoNannounce; make an announcement to
   mìng OC: mɢreŋs MC: mɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • vttoN1.+N2to inform (a subordinate person N1) (about something N2)
   sòng OC: sɢloŋs MC: zi̯oŋ 1 Attribution

to re-tell a conversation which the subject had with somebody else then the adressee of the re-telling [DS]

  • vtoNobject=contentto re-tell something
反命   fǎn mìng OC: panʔ mɢreŋs MC: pi̯ɐn mɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPt[+prep+N]report back to one's lexically determiate leadership
  • VPt+prep+Nreport back to N 反命於國 "report back to one's state"
告命   gào mìng OC: kuuɡs mɢreŋs MC: kɑu mɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPiactmake an official diplomatic report
告敕   gào chì OC: kuuɡs rʰɯɡ MC: kɑu ʈhɨk 1 Attribution
  • VPtt(oN1.)(+N2)tell the contextually determinate person about the contextually determinate thing
告示   gào shì OC: kuuɡs ɢljils MC: kɑu ʑi 1 Attribution
  • VPtt(oN1.)(+N2)tell N1 the message N2, both being contextually determinate
  • vtt[oN1.]+N2report and demonstrate things to N2 so as to enlighten N2
告語   gào yù OC: kuuɡs ŋas MC: kɑu ŋi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • VPtt(oN1.)+N2inform the audience N2 of the contextually determinate message N1
報命   bào mìng OC: puuɡs mɢreŋs MC: pɑu mɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPiactmake a report
宣告   xuān gào OC: sqon kuuɡs MC: siɛn kɑu 1 Attribution
  • VPtt(oN1.)+N2tell the contextually determinate thing N1 to the audience N2
宣通   xuān tōng OC: sqon kh-looŋ MC: siɛn thuŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativeproclaim and get through to
啟白   qǐ bái OC: kheeʔ braaɡ MC: khei bɣɛk 1 Attribution
  • VPtt(oN1.)(+N2)inform the contextually determinate N1 of the contextually determinate fact N2
語曰   yù yuē OC: ŋas ɢʷad MC: ŋi̯ɤ ɦi̯ɐt 1 Attribution
  • VPtoSquotationreport: "..."
   wèn OC: mɯns MC: mi̯un 1 Attribution
  • vttoN1.post-vt(oN2)
入告   rù gào MC: nyip kawH OC: njub kuuɡs 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNreport to the authorities; go in and report to the authorities
上聞   shàng wèn MC: dzyangX mjunH OC: ɡljaŋʔ mɯns 1 Attribution
  • vtt(oN.) Ssubmit to N that S
   yán MC: ngjon OC: ŋan 1 Attribution
  • vttoN1. N2:-Vtell N1 about N2, saying:
   kǒu OC: khooʔ MC: khu 0 Attributions
  • vtoNrare: drop a word to
   xiǎo OC: qheewʔ MC: heu 0 Attributions
  • vtoNcausativecause to know, give to understand
   bǐng OC: prɯmʔ MC: pim 0 Attributions
  • vtoNapparently post-Han: submit formally (to higher authorities); announce formally
交語   jiāo yǔ OC: kreew ŋaʔ MC: kɣɛu ŋi̯ɤ 0 Attributions
  • VPipass on the message (DCD 2.342)
厎告   dǐ gào OC: tjilʔ kuuɡs MC: tɕi kɑu 0 Attributions
  • vttoN1(.+N2)report about concentextually determinate N2 to N1
寄語   jì yǔ OC: krals ŋaʔ MC: kiɛ ŋi̯ɤ 0 Attributions
  • VPttoN.+Ssend word to N that S, let N know that S
復告   fù gào OC: buɡ kuuɡs MC: buk kɑu 0 Attributions
  • VPtoN.+VtoSsay S to N
   shēng OC: qjeŋ MC: ɕiɛŋ 0 Attributions
  • nabsemanticmessage
   cí OC: zɯ MC: zɨ 0 Attributions
  • vtt(oN1.)+N2report the understood message N1 to N2
   shuō OC: lʰod MC: ɕiɛt 0 Attributions
  • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2report the contextually determinate thing to N2 GUOYU: 使人說於子胥 "he sent someone to inform Zixu about it"
   chén OC: ɡrliŋ MC: ɖin 0 Attributions
  • vtoNreport; announce (subject: superior)
   tōng OC: kh-looŋ MC: thuŋ 0 Attributions
  • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2report to N1 the fact N2

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: