ADDRESS  對人家說

SPEAK OR WRITE INTENDING ANOTHER TO HEAR OR READ AND TO REACT to what is SPOKEN OR WRITTEN.
TALK TOGIVE A TALK TOSPEAK TO
Old Chinese Criteria

[ASCENDING/HORIZONTAL/DESCENDING]

[FORMAL/INFORMAL]

[IMPORTANT/INSIGNIFICANT]

[PRESCRIBED/SPONTANEOUS]

[PRIVATE/PUBLIC]

1. Duì 對 "respond" (opp. wèn 問 "ask") refers to responses to superiors (See REPLY) whereas wèi 謂 often addresses inferiors. Yán 言 is neutral in this respect.

[ASCENDING], [FORMAL], [PRESCRIBED]

2. Wèi 謂 is a common word referrring to any form of addressing (often of inferiors) for which the subject has taken an independent initiative.

[DESCENDING!], [SPONTANEOUS]

3. Yán 言 (ant. mò 默 "fail to speak up, remain silent") typically involves addressing someone with a formal (often public and political) suggestion, taking the initiative to speak up.

[FORMAL], [PUBLIC!], [SPONTANEOUS]

4. Gào 告 is typically to address an individual or a group in a formal way or in an important matter, and the content of the address is most often information, but there are also often questions or suggestions involved, when these questions and suggestions are passed on as a message from someone else than the speaker himself.

[FORMAL], [IMPORTANT], [SPONTANEOUS]

Modern Chinese Criteria

對... 說

public address:

演講 refers standardly to giving a public lecture.

講演 typically refers nominally to a public lecture.

演說 refers to a public presentation of a less formal kind, typically viewed as performance.

發言 refers to an act of speaking up in public, long or short.

作報告 is a verb referring to the making of a report.

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis 18.11.2003. CH/

CHAO YUEN REN 1956 Chinese terms of address Language

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

ADDRESS

alloqui is to adress a person who is a stranger with a greeting.

appelare is to address someone so as to draw him or her into a serious conversation.

affari is to turn to someone emotionally by addressing him or her.

LW

appello, appellare, appellavi, appellatus V 1 1 TRANS [XXXAO]

call (upon); address; dun; solicit; appeal (to); bring to court; accuse; name;

adpello, adpellare, adpellavi, adpellatus V 1 1 TRANS [XXXAO]

call (upon); address; dun; solicit; appeal (to); bring to court; accuse; name;

adeo, adire, adivi(ii), aditus V 6 1 [XXXAO]

approach; attack; visit, address; undertake; take possession (inheritance);

destino, destinare, destinavi, destinatus V 1 1 TRANS [XXXAO]

|determine/intend; settle on, arrange; design; send, address, dedicate (Bee);

conpello, conpellare, conpellavi, conpellatus V 1 1 TRANS [XXXBO]

address, accost, speak to, call upon; appeal to; challenge; chide/rebuke; accuse

compello, compellare, compellavi, compellatus V 1 1 TRANS [XXXBO]

address, accost, speak to, call upon; appeal to; challenge; chide/rebuke; accuse

*

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 35

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 48

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 4.893

KOMMUNIKATION

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 1289

謂,曰

1. WL claims that we4i 謂 does not introduce direct speech by itself and is always followed by yue1 曰 when introducing speech. In fact, the situation is much more complicated, and we4i 謂 does introduce direct speech by itself without yue1 曰 many times even in LY, the special nuance being brought out in the translations below:

子謂子賤〔KZJY adds: 曰〕:君子哉若人!魯無君子者,斯焉取斯?

"The Master said of Z”jia4n: 'What a gentleman, this kind of person! If there were no gentlemen in Lu3, how could he have acquired his qualities?" LY 5.3

One sees easily why the Jia1yu3 家語 added the yue1 曰: "What a gentleman, this kind of person" is unmistakably direct speech in the classical Chinese as in English. And the fact is there is no yue1 曰 in the LY text. Neither is there in the following:

子謂公冶長可妻也。雖在縲絏之中,非其罪也。以其子妻之。

"The Master said about Go1ngye3 Cha2ng: 'He is a suitable person to give someone to in marriage. Although he is in fetters, it is not his crime.' He married him off to his daughter." LY 5.1

The Lu4nhe2ng 論衡 does not recognise this construction and quotes our passage with yue1 曰 for we4i 謂 which certainly makes for easier reading.

子謂南容邦有道不廢。邦無道免於刑戮。以其兄之子妻之。

"The Master said about Na2n Ro2ng: 'When the Way prevailed in the state he was not cast aside. When the Way did not prevail in the state he avoided punishment and execution.' And he gave him his elder brother's daughter in marriage." LY 5.2

子謂子產有君子之道四焉:其行己也恭,其事上也敬,其養民也惠,其使民也義。

"The Master said about Z”cha3n: 'He has four Ways of the gentleman: in his actions he is diligent; in his service for superiors he is respectful; in caring for the people he is generous; in deploying the people he is just." LY 18.8

One can see why one would want to avoid a form like z” we4i Z”cha3n yue1 子謂子產曰 to mean "The Master commented on Z”cha3n saying:'...'". This is simply because such a form would be obviously bound to be misunderstood to mean "Confucius told Z”cha3n: '...'".

子謂衛公子荊善居室。始有曰:苟合矣。少有曰:苟完矣。富有曰:苟美矣。

"The Master said about Prince J•ng: 'He was good at living in houses. When he first had one he said: "It will do for the time being." When he had a somewhat larger one he said: "It has everything for the time being." When he had a sumptuous place he said: "It is beautiful for the time being."'" LY 13.8. Compare also LY 5.16 and 18.8 for the same construction.

Couvreur p. 213 indulges in a beautifully complex pattern of direct speech within indirect speech in his Latin paraphrase: "Magister aiebat Wei regni magnum praefectum Koung Tzeu king bene contentum esse domo sua;quum doeperit possidere aliquantulum, dixisse, 'Paululum comparavi;' quum aliquantulam copiam habuerit, dixisse, 'Fere completa est [opulentia mea];' quum abunde habuerit, dixisse, 'Fere splendidum est'." The question is precisely whether this way of construing the Chinese does or does not have any soundbasis in classical Chinese grammar. The answer is that traditional Chinese commentators have been consistently indifferent to our distinction.33 D.C. Lau 1983, p. 123 renders this indifference towards the problem of direct/indirect speech well in his translation, but he does not maintain that studied indifference in the punctuation of the Chinese text.

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 2B

PERSONENBEZEICHNUNGEN

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 80A

ELMIGER 1935 Begruessung und Abschied bei Homer (Dissertation)

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vt+prep+N.adV : 59
  • vtoN.+VtoS : 54
  • VPtt(oN.)+S : 30
  • vttoN.+VtoS : 17
  • vtoN.adV : 13
  • vt+prep+N.adVtoS : 8
  • vt(oN.)+V : 5
  • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2 : 5
  • vttoN.+S : 4
  • VPtoS : 4
  • vtoN : 3
  • vt prep N : 2
  • nab : 2
  • VPttoN.+S : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 64
  • 百喻經 : 50
  • 孟子 : 17
  • 祖堂集 : 16
  • 說苑 : 14
  • 賢愚經 : 12
  • 韓非子 : 7
  • 戰國策 : 5
  • 論語 : 4
  • 史記 : 4
  • 呂氏春秋 : 3
  • 論衡 : 3
  • 韓詩外傳 : 3
  • 晏子春秋 : 1
  • 莊子 : 1
  • 禮記 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1

Words

   yán OC: ŋan MC: ŋi̯ɐn 66 Attributions

Yán 言 (ant. mò 默 "fail to speak up, remain silent") typically involves addressing someone with a formal (often public and political) suggestion, taking the initiative to speak up. >>FORMAL, SPONTANEOUS, PUBLIC!

  • vt+prep+N.adVspeaking to 言於王曰 said to the king ZUO, ZGC, SHIJI, XINLUN
  • vt+prep+Ntalk to, make representations to
  • vtoNspeak up addressing (someone)
  • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2omsay something determinate N1 to (someone N2)
   wèi OC: ɢuds MC: ɦɨi 30 Attributions

Wèi 謂 is a common word referrring to any form of addressing (often of inferiors) for which the subject has taken an independent initiative. >>DESCENDING!, SPONTANEOUS

  • vt(oN.)+Vaddress a contextually determinate person and say
  • vtoN.+VtoSaddress N and say S
  • vttoN.+Ssay to (someone)(direct speech) [note: without 曰]
語言   yù yán OC: ŋas ŋan MC: ŋi̯ɤ ŋi̯ɐn 30 Attributions
  • VPtt(oN.)+Stell the contextually determinate N: "S"; say to the contextually determinate N "S"; speak to the contextually determinate N as follows: "S"
  • VPtt(oN.)+Simperativetell the contextually determinate N that S!
   gào OC: kuuɡs MC: kɑu 26 Attributions

Gào 告 is typically to address an individual or a group in a formal way or in an important matter, and the content of the address is most often information, but there are also often questions or suggestions involved, when these questions and suggestions are passed on as a message from someone else than the speaker himself. >>FORMAL, IMPORTANT

  • vt+prep+N.adVtoSpass on a message to (somebody), (saying:
  • vtoN.+VtoSaddressing (someone)(say) 告眾曰
  • vttoN.+SS=direct.speechaddress someone with the words S
   yù OC: ŋas MC: ŋi̯ɤ 20 Attributions
  • vt(oN.)+Vtell the contextually determinate N that S
  • vttoN.+VtoSreport to; let somebody know; post-Han sometimes: tell someone to carry out the instruction in the speech 語人曰
   xiàng OC: qhaŋs MC: hi̯ɐŋ 12 Attributions
  • vtoN.adVcoverb introducing the recipient of a speech act: address somebody (and say); addressing oneself to N
   bái OC: braaɡ MC: bɣɛk 12 Attributions
  • vtoN.+VtoSaddress (usually a superior, and politely) 白佛曰
  • vttoN.+Saddress N politely witht he words S
  • vttoN.+SS=indirect.speechsay S to N (who is of superior status)
   huà OC: ɡroods MC: ɦɣɛi 3 Attributions
  • nabtexttalk; occasionally, archaic: what one says
  • vtoNtalk to
告曰   gào yuē OC: kuuɡs ɢʷad MC: kɑu ɦi̯ɐt 3 Attributions
  • VPtoSaddress a contextually determinate audience with the message S
   duì OC: k-luubs MC: tuo̝i 2 Attributions

Duì 對 "respond" (opp. wèn 問 "ask") refers to responses to superiors (See REPLY) whereas wèi 謂 often addresses inferiors. Yán 言 is neutral in this respect. Duì 對 is typically in response to a question, whereas wèi 謂 and yán 言 never are. >>FORMAL, ASCENDING, PRESCRIBED

  • vtoN.adV對曰addressing oneself to someone of higher status, not by way of replying to something he has said but to something he has done
  • vtoN.adVfigurativeaddressing > regarding, concerning
  • vtoNaddress (an incoming visitor etc at the door); address others in conversation
命喚   mìng huàn OC: mɢreŋs qhloons MC: mɣaŋ hʷɑn 1 Attribution
  • VPttoN.+Saddress N saying S
誓言   shì yán OC: ɡljeds ŋan MC: dʑiɛi ŋi̯ɐn 1 Attribution
  • VPtoSswear an oath to the effect that S
  • NPabtextsolemn address
   jiā MC: kae OC: kraal 1 Attribution
  • vt prep Npassivebe addressed to
   shì OC: ɡljeds MC: dʑiɛi 0 Attributions
  • nabactinvocation
  • vt+prep+Ninvoke, swear by

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: