Taxonomy of meanings for 使:

  • shǐ (OC: srɯʔ MC: ʃɨ) 疏士切 上 廣韻:【役也令也又踈事切 】
  • shì (OC: srɯʔ MC: ʃɨ) 疏吏切 去 廣韻:【又色里切 】
  • 使 shǐ (OC: srɯʔ MC: ʃɨ) 疏士切 上 廣韻:【役也令也又踈事切 】
    • CAUSE TO
      • vt[oN]cause things; bring things about; cause things to be what they are
      • vt+V[0]passivebe caused to do something, be made to do sth. 可使
      • vtoNpassivebe made to do things
      • vtt(oN.)+V[0]cause somebody contextually determinate N to V, make somebody N get into a certain situation, make somebody or something obtain a quality
      • vttoN. V(0)conativetry to cause someone to do something
      • vttoN.+V[0]pivotcause N to V, bring it about that N V-s 使之聞之 [NB: the first 之shows that the object of 使 does function as an object and not only as a subject of wén 聞. Thus technically speaking we do not have a sentence after the vt.]
      • vttoN(.+V[0])to cause (somebody) to perform a contextually defined action
      • vttpostnpro:oNpro{PIVOT}.+Vreflexive.自cause (oneself) to V 自使其無死
      • vtoNbring about
      • vttoN.+V[0]conativetry to cause N to V
      • systematically cause certain behaviour> shǐ 使CONTROL
        • vt(oN)keep control over, exercise control over contextually determinate objects
        • vtoNmake submit to one's will, control, keep control over; order about
        • control politically, be in charge of> shǐ 使GOVERN
          • vt(oN)deploy and organise the contextually determinate object (typically the people) properly
          • vtoNdeploy and organise (the people, one's inferiors etc) properly
          • vtoNpassivebe administered, be dealt with, be governed
        • control so as to make use of> shǐ 使USE
            • use excessively (wine etc)> shǐ 使UNRESTRAINED
              • vtoNbe unrestrained with respect to; make unrestrained use of; indulge excessively in
        • cause something to be done by issuing a command> shǐ 使COMMAND
          • nabactcommand; order
          • viactgive orders, order people about
          • vt+V[0]command that there be V-ing; command that one should V
          • vtt(oN.)+V[0]command a contextually determinate person (to do something)
          • vtt[oN.]+V[0]give orders to, order someone to V (NB: the "someone" is omitted but specified in the lexicon. This is not a case of the context allowing one to identify a person.)
          • DELETEomgive orders to V
          • vttoN.+V[0]pivotensure that someone does something> order someone to do something; dispatch someone to do something
          • vttoN(.+V[0])order a person to do a contextually determinate thing
          • vtoNorder about
          • vt[oN]order people about
          • nab.adVwith one's commands/dispositions
          • being commanded cause something to be done> shǐ 使OBEY
            • vtoNcarry into practice (commands) 使令
            • obey so as to be in the service of shǐ 使SERVE
              • nabactservice on a mission
              • nadVas an envoy, as a messenger
              • viactserve on an official mission
              • vtoNgo on a mission to (a state), act as an envoy or ambassador to
              • vtoNobject=humanbe in the service of; go errands for
              • vi V[0]serve/go on a mission to V
          • command people to serve one shǐ 使DEPLOY
            • vtoNdeploy (the people etc)
            • vt(oN)deploy as a workforce etc
            • command someone to become an employee> shǐ 使EMPLOY
              • nobjectread shì: employee; envoy
              • nabactemployment
              • vadNpassiveemployed
              • vt+V[0]passivebe long-term employed in the function to S
              • vtoNemploy on a mission; send out as representative or ambassador; send as an emissary (to a place) (to do something)
              • vtoNpassivebe employed, be on an official mission
              • vttoN.+V[0]act asemploy as, employ to act as 使為
              • vttoN.+V[0]pivotto send (somebody to do something); set (someone to do something) see also: COMMAND for temporary orders to do something
              • vtt(oN.)+V[0]employ the contextually determinate N to V
              • vtoNemploy in one's service
              • vtt(oN1.)+N2employ N1 as N2
              • someone employed on an official mission> shǐ 使ENVOY
                • nenvoy
                • vi+prep+Nact as an envoy in/to N
                • vtoNact as an envoy to (a place); go on an official mission to
                • viactbe on an official mission
                • nabactdiplomatic official mission
          • command something to be moved> shǐ 使SEND
            • vadNpassivesent-out
            • vtoNemploy N on some mission
            • vttoN1.+prep+N2send (someone N1) on an official mission to (a place N2)公使諸齊
            • vttoN.+V[0]send somebody to V
            • vttoN1.+prep+N2passive(of N1:) be sent to N2
      • cause something to be feasible/permissible> shǐ 使PERMIT
        • vttoN.+V[0]pivotlet (someone do something) NB: the un-negated cases are crucial. The negated cases can possibly be explained by NEG-raising.)
        • vtt(oN.+V[0])subject=inanimateallow N to V
        • cause to in a hypothetical mode> shǐ 使IF
          • vt0oS1.adS2supposing as a purely hypothetical and theoretical, or at least remote, possibility
          • cause to in a counterfactual hypothetical mode> shǐ 使COUNTERFACTUAL
            • vt0oS1.adS2conditionalsupposing that, counter to fact; supposing that as a theoretical possibility
    • 使 shì (OC: srɯʔ MC: ʃɨ) 疏吏切 去 廣韻:【又色里切 】