APPOINT  委任

EMPLOY so as to CAUSE TO BECOME a SENIOR OFFICIAL.
NOMINATENAMEDESIGNATEINSTALL ASCOMMISSIONENGAGE
Taxonoymy

INSTALLPROMOTE

Antonymy

DISMISS

See also

DEPLOY

Kind Of

EMPLOY

Old Chinese Criteria

[FORMAL/INFORMAL]

[GENERAL/SPECIFIC]

[IMPOLITE/POLITE]

[TECHNICAL-TERM/CURRENT-WORD]

1. Bài 拜 (ant. biǎn 貶 "demote to a lower position in the hierarchy at court") refers formally and bureaucratically to a high appointment at court.

[POLITE], [SPECIFIED]; [vtt!]

2. Shì 仕 (ant. chù 黜 "remove from office") describes a position below the top echelon in pre-Qín times, but came to refer to the highest kinds of appointment in Hàn times.

[FORMAL], [GENERAL]

3. Huàn 宦 is rarer, refers originally to the position of a menial servant, but became basically synonymous with shì 仕, except that huàn 宦 normally refers to positions held at court.

[SPECIFIC], [FORMAL]

4. Wéi 為 "make into" is a neutral informal term which does not primarily refer to the formal investment or any transferring of the insignia of office.

[GENERAL], [INFORMAL]

5. Xiàng 相 is used in a derived sense for an appointment to a specific high position, that of Prime Minister.

[FORMAL], [SPECIFIC+]

6. Shǔ 署 is a Hàn dynasty technical buraucratic term.

[FORMAL], [TECHNICAL-TERM]

7. Mìng 命 refers specifically to the conferment of the title which goes with an official appointment.

[FORMAL], [CURRENT-WORD]

8. 委

9. 授

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006 GOVERNMENT/LAW 21.

任,任官的通稱。

委,用於皇帝或諸王委任重要職務。

拜,用一定的禮節授給官職。

授,朝廷對於有一定功績或有聲望者授予或提升職務。

除,免去舊官任新官;後也用於初授官職,

23. 賜,多為爵位、名號等物質、榮譽等的恩惠。

賞,施於有功者的恩惠。

封,最早指分賜土地;後指分賜公侯、食邑、爵號之類,含有莊重色彩。

贈,漢代起特用於對死者的追封、追贈。

GOVERNMENT/LAW 26. APPOINT TO A NEW POSITION

改,平調,有時略含升遷,要與表示任職的詞連用。

調,不同部門間的平級調動,有時也小有升或降,還有選拔調用的情況。

轉,完全因工作需要而平調。

徙,一般指平調,但根據不同情況,也可表升或降職。

Modern Chinese Criteria

委任

委派

加委

任命

封官

授官

加官

選官

拜官

拜除

拜命

封爵

加官進爵

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis, based on CL. 18.11.2003. CH/

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 36
  • NPab : 12
  • vi : 9
  • VPtt(oN1.) N2 : 5
  • vttoN1.+N2 : 5
  • vt[oN] : 4
  • vtoN1 wéiN2 : 3
  • vt(oN) : 3
  • vttoN.+V[0] : 3
  • vadN : 3
  • vtoN.-V[0] : 2
  • vtt(oN1.) N2 : 2
  • VPtoN : 2
  • vt+N : 2
  • VPtt(oN1.) N2 : 1
  • vttoN1:postvtoN2 : 1
  • nab : 1

Attributions by text

  • 說苑 : 19
  • 韓非子 : 16
  • 春秋左傳 : 13
  • 史記 : 9
  • 論語 : 8
  • 論衡 : 6
  • 戰國策 : 3
  • 尚書 : 3
  • 莊子 : 2
  • 呂氏春秋 : 2
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 2
  • 毛詩 : 2
  • 孟子 : 2
  • 韓詩外傳 : 2
  • 公孫龍子 : 2
  • 晏子春秋 : 1
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 賢愚經 : 1

Words

   jǔ OC: klaʔ MC: ki̯ɤ 24 Attributions
  • vt(oN)omappoint the contextually determinate person
  • vt[oN]make appointments
  • vtoN.-V[0]appoint N to V
  • vtoNchoose (a person) for promotion, recommend; appoint to a high position
  • vtoNpassivebe appointed
   shì OC: dzrɯʔ MC: ɖʐɨ 12 Attributions

Shì 仕 (ant. chù 黜 "remove from office") describes a position below the top echelon in pre-Qín times, but came to refer to the highest kinds of appointment in Hàn times. [FORMAL], [GENERAL]

  • viacttake employment
  • viinchoativegain employment; enter employment
  • vttoN1.+N2causativeemploy (someone N1) as (an official N2); employ (someone) (in a position)
天命   tiān mìng OC: lʰiin mɢreŋs MC: then mɣaŋ 12 Attributions
  • NPabactappointment by Heaven, Mandate of Heaven to a ruler
   fēng OC: poŋ MC: pi̯oŋ 11 Attributions
  • vadNenfeoffed
  • vtoNenfeoff (a person)
  • vttoN.+V[0]enfoeff N to V
  • vtoNpassivebe appointed
  • nabactappointments
   xiàng OC: sqaŋs MC: si̯ɐŋ 6 Attributions

Xiàng 相 is used in a derived sense for an appointment to a specific high position, that of Prime Minister. [FORMAL], [SPECIFIC+]

  • vtoNcausativeappoint as prime minister
以為   yǐ wéi MC: yiX hjweH OC: k-lɯʔ ɢʷal 6 Attributions
  • VPtt(oN1.) N2appoint the contextually determinate N1 as N2
  • VPtt(oN1.) N2continuativehave the contextually determinate person appointed as N2; retain the contextually determinate person in the function N2
   wéi OC: ɢʷal MC: ɦiɛ 5 Attributions

Wéi 為 "make into" is a neutral informal term which does not primarily refer to the formal investment or any transferring of the insignia of office. [GENERAL], [INFORMAL]

  • vtoNCAUSE TO BECOME> appoint as (a successor etc); make into (one's ruler/tutor etc)
  • vtt(oN1.)+N2omappoint someone contextually determinate N1 as (something N2)
  • vttoN1:postvtoN2以N2為N1 
   mìng OC: mɢreŋs MC: mɣaŋ 4 Attributions

Mìng 命 refers specifically to the conferment of the title which goes with an official appointment.

  • nabactappointment; appointment and mandate 受命
  • vt+prep+Npassiveby appointed to one's position by N
  • vtoNgive an appointment to, appoint; give a mandate to
  • vtoNpassiveget a formal (feudal) appointment
  • vttoN1.+N2appoint N1 to the position N2
   bài OC: proods MC: pɣɛi 4 Attributions

Bài 拜 (ant. biǎn 貶 "demote to a lower position in the hierarchy at court") refers formally and bureaucratically to a high appointment at court. [POLITE], [SPECIFIED]; [vtt!]

  • vt+NN=officebe appointed as (a prime minister etc)
  • vttoN1.+N2appoint (a person N1) in (a position N2); appoint N1 to a position higher by N2
   huàn OC: ɢʷraans MC: ɦɣan 3 Attributions

Huàn 宦 is rarer, refers originally to the position of a menial servant, but became basically synonymous with shì 仕, except that huàn 宦 normally refers to positions held at court. [SPECIFIC], [FORMAL]

  • vtoNemploy in official function at court
   shòu OC: djus MC: ɨu 1 Attribution
  • vtoNappoint (as leader etc)
拜授   bài shòu OC: proods djus MC: pɣɛi ɨu 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNgive a position to
爵命   jué mìng OC: tsewɡ mɢreŋs MC: tsi̯ɐk mɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabactappointment
  • VPtoNpassivebe formally appointed to a high feudal rank
   chú MC: drjo OC: rla 1 Attribution
  • vt(oN)appoint the contextually determinate person to a higher position
   yán MC: yen OC: lan 1 Attribution
  • vtoN1. yǐ N2apoint N1 to the position of N2 延以...之位
   zūn MC: tswon OC: tsuun 1 Attribution
  • vtoN1 wéiN2honour N1 so as to make him N2
待以   dài yǐ MC: dojX yiX OC: ɡ-lɯɯʔ k-lɯʔ 1 Attribution
  • vtt(oN1.) N2appoint the implicit N1 to the rank N2; treat N1 as an N2
使   shǐ OC: srɯʔ MC: ʂɨ 0 Attributions
  • vtt(oN1.)+N2appoint N1 to the position N2
   wěi OC: qrolʔ MC: ʔiɛ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNsend to fill an office, order to fill an office;
   zhēng OC: tɯŋ MC: ʈɨŋ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNdraft in in order to apoint in some office (Han dynasty bureaucratic usage)
   shǔ OC: ɡljas MC: dʑi̯ɤ 0 Attributions

Shǔ 署 is a Hàn dynasty technical buraucratic term. [FORMAL], [TECHNICAL]

  • vtoNappoint by imperial order (Han dynasty bureaucratic usage)
稟為   bǐng wéi OC: prɯmʔ ɢʷal MC: pim ɦiɛ 0 Attributions
  • VPtt(oN1.)+N2appoint the contextually determinate N1 to the distinguished rank of an N2
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vtt(oN1.) N2appoint the contextually determinate N1 as N2

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: