CAUSE TO  指使

MOVE in SUCH a way that THEREFORE someone or something else CHANGES.
BRING ABOUTGIVE RISE TOLEAD TORESULT INCREATEPRODUCEGENERATEENGENDERSPAWNBRING ONPRECIPITATEPROMPTPROVOKETRIGGERMAKE HAPPENINDUCEINSPIREPROMOTEFOSTERLITERARY BEGETENKINDLE
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current general word for causation is shǐ 使 which can refer to any form of bringing about a process or an action. See also COMMAND and SEND

2. Lìng 令, though primarily used for getting things done by ordering them to be done (see COMMAND) came to be used in Warring States times as a general equivalent for shǐ 使. NB: I have not so far found a neat distinction between these two common words in the group.

3. Qiǎn 遣, fā 發 all refer to causing things to happen by sending a person to bring them about. See also SEND

4. Zhì 致 refers to making others go further in doing something than they normally would.

Modern Chinese Criteria

指使

主使

驅使

驅遣

驅策

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vttoN.+V[0] : 129
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0] : 37
  • vtoN : 31
  • vt+V[0] : 7
  • vttoN(.+V[0]) : 5
  • vttoN. V(0) : 3
  • VPtt(oN1.) N2 : 2
  • VPtoS : 2
  • VPtt(oN.)+V[0] : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 49
  • 說苑 : 22
  • 百喻經 : 14
  • 呂氏春秋 : 12
  • 春秋左傳 : 12
  • 孟子 : 12
  • 論語 : 10
  • 荀子 : 9
  • 賢愚經 : 8
  • 法言 : 7
  • 法句經 : 7
  • 戰國策 : 6
  • 莊子 : 5
  • 毛詩 : 5
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 4
  • 六祖壇經 : 4
  • 文子 : 4
  • 墨子 : 3
  • 臨濟錄 : 3
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 3
  • 列子 : 2
  • 管子 : 2
  • 老子 : 2
  • 韓詩外傳 : 2
  • 朱子語類 : 1
  • 公孫龍子 : 1
  • 禮記 : 1
  • 晏子春秋 : 1
  • 太平經 : 1
  • 孫子 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • 祖堂集 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1

Words

使   shǐ OC: srɯʔ MC: ʂɨ 127 Attributions

The current general word for causation is shǐ 使 which can refer to any form of bringing about a process or an action. See also COMMAND and SEND

  • vt[oN]cause things; bring things about; cause things to be what they are
  • vt+V[0]passivebe caused to do something, be made to do sth. 可使
  • vtoNpassivebe made to do things
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0]cause somebody contextually determinate N to V, make somebody N get into a certain situation, make somebody or something obtain a quality
  • vttoN. V(0)conativetry to cause someone to do something
  • vttoN.+V[0]pivotcause N to V, bring it about that N V-s 使之聞之 [NB: the first 之shows that the object of 使 does function as an object and not only as a subject of wén 聞. Thus technically speaking we do not have a sentence after the vt.]
  • vttoN(.+V[0])to cause (somebody) to perform a contextually defined action
  • vttpostnpro:oNpro{PIVOT}.+Vreflexive.自cause (oneself) to V 自使其無死
  • vtoNbring about
  • vttoN.+V[0]conativetry to cause N to V
   lìng OC: ɡ-reŋ MC: liɛŋ 40 Attributions

Lìng 令, though primarily used for getting things done by ordering them to be done (see COMMAND) came to be used in Warring States times as a general equivalent for shǐ 使. NB: I have not so far found a neat distinction between these two common words in the group.

  • vtoN.+V[0]cause it to V
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0]cause the contextually determinate object (to do something)
  • vttoN.+V[0]pivotcause to, get (someone) to (do something); send (someone to do somthing)
  • vttoN.+V[0]reflexive.自cause (oneself) to V [Note that this does not get the semantic category "caus".]
   zhāo OC: kljew MC: tɕiɛu 11 Attributions
  • vtoNfigurativeattract; cause to arise for oneself
   zhì OC: k-liɡs MC: ʈi 10 Attributions

Zhì 致 refers to making others go further in doing something than they normally would.

  • vtoNbring about
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0]cause the contextually determinate N to V
  • vttoN.+V[0]cause someone to go as far s to do something
   bǐ OC: peʔ MC: piɛ 8 Attributions
  • vttoN.+V[0]pivotto cause somebody to do something
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0]cause the contextually determinate N to V
   zhào OC: ɡrlews MC: ɖiɛu 7 Attributions
  • vtoNfig: call up and cause (an event, a state of affairs)
   xùn OC: sɢʷlins MC: zʷin 3 Attributions
  • vttoN.+V[0]cause N to V
  • vttoN.+V[0]passivecaused by N to be Ved
   qiǎn OC: khenʔ MC: khiɛn 3 Attributions

Qiǎn 遣, fā 發 all refer to causing things to happen by sending a person to bring them about. See also SEND

  • vtoNsend out on a mission to; send on one's way MOVE THIS TO SEND
   jiāo OC: kleew MC: keu 2 Attributions
  • vtoNarouse
致使   zhì shǐ OC: k-liɡs srɯʔ MC: ʈi ʂɨ 2 Attributions
  • VPtoSbring it about that S
以為   yǐ wéi MC: yiX hjweH OC: k-lɯʔ ɢʷal 2 Attributions
  • VPtt(oN1.) N2make the contextually determinate N1 into an N2
   qǐ OC: khɯʔ MC: khɨ 1 Attribution
  • vttoN.+V[0]arouse N so that it V-s
使令   shǐ lìng OC: srɯʔ ɡ-reŋ MC: ʂɨ liɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtt(oN.)+V[0]cause the contextually determinate object to V
   chāi OC: skhreel MC: ʈʂhɣɛ 0 Attributions
  • vttoN.+V[0]pivotpost-Han: send out on a mission
   pài OC: phreeɡs MC: phɣɛ 0 Attributions
  • vttoN.+V[0]pivotlate colloquial: send out to
   fā OC: pod MC: pi̯ɐt 0 Attributions

Qiǎn 遣, fā 發 all refer to causing things to happen by sending a person to bring them about. See also SEND

  • vttoN.+V[0]pivotsend someone out to do something
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • VPt(oN1.) N2make the contextually determinate N1 into an N2

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: