Taxonomy of meanings for 作:

  • zuò (OC: tsaaɡs MC: tsuo) 臧祚切 去 廣韻:【造也臧祚切一 】
  • zuò (OC: tsaals MC: tsɑ) 則箇切 去 廣韻:【造也本臧洛切 】
  • zuò (OC: tsaaɡ MC: tsɑk) 則落切 入 廣韻:【爲也起也行也役也始也生也又姓漢有涿郡太守作顯則落切又則邏臧路二切六 】
    • ARISE
      • vicome into being for the first time, make one's appearance, appear on the scene
      • vtoNpassivearise from
      • vtoNcausativemake something emerge, provoke something
      • nabprocessthe coming into existence; origin
      • vt+prep+NN=placeto arise in/at N
      • of events>HAPPEN
        • vicome to occur
        • of sth lasting>BEGIN
          • vichange
        • causative>ACT
          • vtoNengage in, perform, carry out; perpetrate; act according to 作亂 "start a rebellion"; 作孽 "do evil"; have the function of
          • nabactthe taking of initiatives
          • viactbecome active> twitch
          • vt(oN)carry out in practice
          • viactengage in action
          • traditional>CONFORM
            • vtoN.adVbased on N
            • causative>CONTROL
              • to set tasks>WORK
                • viactdo unskilled manual work; work, do productive work
                • nabactwork
          • perfective>PRODUCE
            • vtoNproduce (coal etc); write (text); produce (sound etc)
            • vtoNfigurativegenerate (a thought or plan etc)
            • vt(oN)produce the contextually determinate N
            • vttoN1(.+N2)make N1 out of the contextually determinate N2
            • innovative>CREATE
              • vtoNset up, originate (something), create, invent; produce; of texts: compose
              • vtoNmiddle voicebe created???
              • vt(oN)make it, produce it; create something
              • vt[oN]create things, originate things
              • vttoN1.+N2perfectiveto create (something N1) (for somebody N2)
              • nobjectcreation =所作
              • vttoN1.+N2changemake into
              • nabactbe created
              • abstract: object text>WRITE
                • vtoNwrite or compose (a document)
                • vtoNimperativewrite!
            • object written>BOOK
              • npost-N
            • specifically, concrete>BUILD
              • vt+prep+Nmiddle voicebe built from the stage N
              • vtoNOBI 5: take the initiative to build
            • artificial>PRETEND
              • vtoNpretend to (abilities); pretend to be (the Buddha)
        • of physical objects, upwards>RISE
          • viactrise to one's feet
      • stative>COPULA
        • vt+Ncopulabecome, come to be, come to act as, come to fill the role as
        • vt+Nact as; be; be regarded as; have as attribute; have as feature
        • vt+V[0]intensitivecount as being V; be regarded as being V; become V
        • vtoN1.postN2N2 regarded as N1; N2 counted as being N1
        • vtoN.postadVV and become/be N 喚作
        • vt+Nbe
        • putative late: believe to be 作X看>BELIEVE
          • changing>BECOME
            • vtoN...so that it becomes (should probably be read as vpostadV
            • vt+Ncopulabecome, turn into; turn oneself into
            • awake>WAKE UP
              • vichangeget up (for work?)????