Taxonomy of meanings for 謂:

  • wèi (OC: ɢuds MC: ɦʷɨi) 于貴切 去 廣韻:【言也告也説文報也 】
    • SPEAK
      • vtoSquotationsay: S
      • vttoN.+V[0]say about N that it V-s
      • vttoN{PIVOT}.+S{QUOTE}psychsay about (oneself) that S
      • vt(oN)say, mention (a contextually determinate fact)
      • vtoNpronounce
      • intend thereby>MEAN
        • vt+V[0]refer to V-ing [I am aware that these V can be and probably should be regarded as unmarked nominalisations, but it is good to have these cases as separate records for analysis.]
        • vtoNrefer to; apply to; (of a person or a text) mean [We need to separate out the cases where the word refers to an action, that of referring to something, meaning something, having something in mind", and the stative meaning as in "this word X means/refers to Y".]
        • vtoSstativemeans that, refers to the fact that, refers to S
        • vtpostN1pro.postN1N1=object此之謂也 [note that the 也 is very rarely omitted]
        • vtt[0]oN1.postN2pro:postN2X之謂Y  one means N1 by N2
        • nabsemantic
        • vtpostNpro{OBJ}as in 此之謂也 "(The above phrase) may be properly applied to this." NOT refer to but only: apply to, be applicable to
        • vtoNpsychologicalsemantic: intend to say, mean to convey
        • vtoNderivedapply to (but obviously not explicitly or implicitly refer to)
        • and thus identify something>REFER TO
            • means for referring>NAME
              • {vtt...}mathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
              • vt[0].+V[0]passivebe properly called V; be said to V 可謂
              • vtoSmaintain that S (followed by direct speech); claim S as true (of someone); pronounce (someone to be such-and-such); maintain the judgment that S
              • vtt:postN1pro.postN1in idiomatic expression A, B 之謂也: A is applicable to B.
              • vtt[0]{PASS}oN1.postN2passivebe called (See COPULA, but note the deep difference between what people say and what ought to be said. The distinction between copula use and the present use must be reworked.CH)
              • vtt[0]oN1.+N2謂之“仁人” one calls (N1) properly by (a name N2) 
              • vtt[0]oN1.postN2pro:postN2one calls N2 N1; N2 is called N1 此之謂x
              • vtt[0]oN1pro.+N2:postN1A 謂之B: A is called B
              • vttoN.+Sreferring to (N) say (S) (without additional yuē 曰)
              • vttoN.+V[0]say of (something or someone) (that it is such and such)
              • vttoN.+V[0]reflexive.自call (oneself) V
              • vttoN1.+N2callcall (something N1(often Npro)) (an N2)
              • vttoN1.+N2reflexive.自call (oneself) N2
              • vttoN1+.vtoN2call something by a name; used with the copula 曰 introducing the name given
              • vtt[0]oNpro. N:postNab{S}{SUBJECT}(if one behaves so and so) one calls it N 不問而告謂之傲
          • grammaticalised>COPULA
            • vt+Ncopulabe reckoned to be; be considered to be a matter ofbe called; be addressed as; be labeled as
            • vttpostnpro.oNmiddlevoicethis is called N
        • to someone>ADDRESS
          • vt(oN.)+Vaddress a contextually determinate person and say
          • vtoN.+VtoSaddress N and say S
          • vttoN.+Ssay to (someone)(direct speech) [note: without 曰]
          • expressing question>ASK
            • vtoN.+VtoSaddress someone with a question
          • issuing an order>COMMAND
            • vtoN.+VtoScommand, tell to 謂x曰:。。。told X "You must..."
            • vtoNgive commands to (someone)
            • vttoN.+V[0]pivotto address (somebody) and make him to do something; tell (somebody) (to do something)
      • “to oneself”>BELIEVE
        • vtoS(often wrongly) imagine that S
        • vtt(oN.)+V[0]consider the contextually determinate N to V
        • vtt(oN{PIVOT}.)+N{PRED}believe the contextually determinate pivot N to be the predicate N.
        • vttoN.+V[0]pivot(typically wrongly:) think of N that he/she/it Vs; think that N will V
        • vttoN.+V[0]reflexive.自consider oneself (typically wrongly) to V