PRODUCE  製造

ACT so as to DELIBERATELY CAUSE something to BEGIN to EXIST.
MANUFACTUREMAKECONSTRUCTBUILDFABRICATEPUT TOGETHERASSEMBLETURN OUTCREATEMASS-PRODUCEINFORMAL CHURN OUT
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The most common word for producing something is wéi 為.

2. Chéng 成 focusses on the completion of the process and its success.

3. Zhì 治 focusses on the orderliness of the result.

4. Chǎn 產 focusses on the act of production as typically informed by professionalism.

5. Zào 造 refers to the production of something like a carriage through craftsmanship.

6. Zhì 制 refers primarily to the production of clothes, but the word later came to refer to all manner of production of artifacts.

Modern Chinese Criteria

製造

製作

造作

打造

生產

出產

創作

發生

產生

發出

生出

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 9.11

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 9.72

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 73

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 7.1418

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 1225

制,製

1. Zhi4 制 originally meant "produce", and this use of the word came to be written zhi4 製.

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 366

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 57B

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 160
  • VPtoN : 9
  • n : 6
  • vttoN1.+N2 : 5
  • vt0oN.postadVt : 3
  • nab : 2
  • vt(oN) : 2
  • vt+prep+N : 2
  • vtpost-.VtoN : 2
  • vt1oN1:post-.vt2oN2{OBJECT} : 1
  • VPi : 1
  • vadN : 1

Attributions by text

  • 百喻經 : 42
  • 韓非子 : 24
  • 管子 : 14
  • 荀子 : 12
  • 春秋左傳 : 11
  • 賢愚經 : 9
  • 說苑 : 7
  • 孟子 : 6
  • 楚辭 : 6
  • 禮記 : 5
  • 論衡 : 5
  • 論語 : 4
  • 莊子 : 4
  • 史記 : 4
  • 法集要頌經 : 4
  • 韓詩外傳 : 4
  • 晏子春秋 : 3
  • 戰國策 : 3
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 3
  • 淮南子 : 3
  • 法言 : 3
  • 孝經 : 2
  • 臨濟錄 : 2
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 2
  • 列子 : 1
  • 孫子 : 1
  • 呂氏春秋 : 1
  • 鹽鐵論 : 1
  • 周易 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 太平經 : 1
  • 祖堂集 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1
  • 文子 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1
  • 公孫龍子 : 1

Words

   wéi OC: ɢʷal MC: ɦiɛ 56 Attributions

The most common word for producing something is wéi 為.

  • vttoN1.+N2conativetry to produce something (N2) for someone (N1)
  • vtoNmake/produce (physically), construct build (a platform, a house)
  • vtoNfigurativeproduce (problems etc)
  • vtoNiussivehave produced for one (ear-rings to give to the ruler)
  • vtoNmathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
  • vttoN1.+N2produce (something N2) (for someone N1)
  • vttoN1.+N2reflexive.自make an N2 for (oneself)
  • vtoNconstitute, produce something by transforming to it
  • vtoNproduce an image of
  • vtoNobject=abstractproduce (a theory, a thesis, a text)
  • vt1oN1:post-.vt2oN2{OBJECT}produce N1 using N2; make N1 of N2
   shēng OC: sraaŋ MC: ʂɣaŋ 37 Attributions
  • nabactengendering things, originating things
  • vt(oN)produce a contextually determinate thing
  • vt+prep+Nfigurativeproduce
  • vtoNcausativecause to grow, grow (grain); produce; give rise to; be the origin of, originate
  • vtoNcausativegive rise to; produce
  • vtoNfigurativeBUDDH: produce (psychological reactions)
  • nabkindstypes of production, kinds of engendering
作 / 作 / 作 / 乍   zuò OC: tsaaɡs MC: tsuo̝ zuò OC: tsaals MC: tsɑ zuò OC: tsaaɡ MC: tsɑk zhà OC: dzraaɡs MC: ɖʐɣɛ 27 Attributions
  • vtoNproduce (coal etc); write (text); produce (sound etc)
  • vtoNfigurativegenerate (a thought or plan etc)
  • vt(oN)produce the contextually determinate N
  • vttoN1(.+N2)make N1 out of the contextually determinate N2
   chéng OC: djeŋ MC: dʑiɛŋ 22 Attributions

Chéng 成 focusses on the completion of the process and its success.

  • vt0oN.postadVtverbal complementverbal complement indicating the result of an action/process 化成 transform into, 按成
  • vtoNfinish the making of> make, produce, bring about
  • vtoNfigurativeform (factions etc)
   zào OC: sɡuuʔ MC: dzɑu 18 Attributions

Zào 造 refers to the production of something like a carriage through craftsmanship.

  • nobjectproduct (short for 所造)
  • nabactproduction 造修之具
  • vadNproduced, created
  • vt(oN)produce the contextually determinate N
  • vtoNproduce (fruit etc)
  • vtoNfigurativeproduce, create (resentment)
   chǎn OC: sqreenʔ MC: ʂɣɛn 12 Attributions

Chǎn 產 focusses on the act of production as typically informed by professionalism.

  • nobject(one's own) product; product (of a place)
  • nabactproduction of goods
  • vt+prep+Npassivebe produced from
  • vtoNcause to arise; produce
生出   shēng chū OC: sraaŋ khljud MC: ʂɣaŋ tɕhʷit 4 Attributions
  • VPtoNproduce cf. BY 不生不出
  • VPimiddle voiceget produced
   zuò OC: skaas MC: tsuo̝ 2 Attributions
  • vtpost-.VtoNproduce, make (something) (with a preceding coverbal phrase indicating the benefactor)
   zhì OC: kjeds MC: tɕiɛi 2 Attributions

Zhì 制 refers primarily to the production of clothes, but the word later came to refer to all manner of production of artifacts.

  • vtoNproduce (primarily clothes, later also artifacts)
   gòu OC: koos MC: ku 2 Attributions
  • vtoNmake; ensue (trouble); create
   fā OC: pod MC: pi̯ɐt 2 Attributions
  • vtoNpsychproduce, develop
   jiàng OC: sbaŋs MC: dzi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNproduce, fashion
   chí OC: rlɯ MC: ɖɨ 1 Attribution

Zhì 治 focusses on the orderliness of the result.

  • vtoNorganise the production of
作成 / 作成 / 作成   zuò chéng OC: tsaaɡs djeŋ MC: tsuo̝ dʑiɛŋ zuò chéng OC: tsaals djeŋ MC: tsɑ dʑiɛŋ zuò chéng OC: tsaaɡ djeŋ MC: tsɑk dʑiɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNproduce as a complete product, create so as to be a complete thing
制匠   zhì jiàng OC: kjeds sbaŋs MC: tɕiɛi dzi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNproduce and fashion, create
構造   gòu zào OC: koos sɡuuʔ MC: ku dzɑu 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativeproduce
興發   xīng fā OC: qhɯŋ pod MC: hɨŋ pi̯ɐt 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNfigurativeproduce (a mental attitude, an effect in the mind)
設作   shè zuò OC: qhjed tsaaɡ MC: ɕiɛt tsɑk 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNproduce
造成   zào chéng OC: sɡuuʔ djeŋ MC: dzɑu dʑiɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNproduce
造設   zào shè OC: sɡuuʔ qhjed MC: dzɑu ɕiɛt 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNproduce and prepare
   chuī MC: tsyhwe OC: khjol 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcast (bronze instruments)
化成   huà chéng OC: hŋʷraals djeŋ MC: hɣɛ dʑiɛŋ 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNresultativeproduce through transformation, engender through transformation
   qǐ OC: khɯʔ MC: khɨ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNproduce

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: