PRODUCE  製造

ACT so as to DELIBERATELY CAUSE something to BEGIN to EXIST.
MANUFACTUREMAKECONSTRUCTBUILDFABRICATEPUT TOGETHERASSEMBLETURN OUTCREATEMASS-PRODUCEINFORMAL CHURN OUT
Hypernym

ACTMOVE OR NOT MOVE CONFORMING to one's SELF:own DECIDE:decision. -> MOVECHANGE PLACE OR SITUATION. -> CHANGEEVENT involving two MOMENTS t1 and t2, such that a THING at the MOMENT t1 is DIFFERENT FROM that THING at the MOMENT t2. -> EVENTREALITY that ARISES in TIME. -> REALITYEXIST and NOT ONLY BE IMAGINED. -> EXISTBE-IN the UNIVERSE of SPACE AND TIME. -> BE INRELATION between a THING AND what that THING FILLS OR PART:partially FILLS. -> RELATIONFEATURE of TWO OR MORE THINGS TOGETHER. -> FEATUREABSTRACT OBJECT a THING is SAID to BE OR to HAVE. -> OBJECT[NO HYPERNYM.] WHAT one CAN NAME:refer to. -> PRIME -> N/A

Hyponym
  • BUILD PRODUCE as a BUILDING.
    • FORTIFY BUILD CITY WALLS FOR DEFENDING a PLACE.
    • COMPLETE ACT out OR PRODUCE something so as to CAUSE it to BECOME WHOLE.
      • ACHIEVE COMPLETE a DIFFICULT ACT.
        • COPE ACHIEVE a DIFFICULT WORK:task.
        • MERIT GOOD PUBLIC ACHIEVEMENTS.
        • SUCCEED ACHIEVE an IMPORTANT AIM with DIFFICULTY.
    • COOK PRODUCE FOOD FOR IMMEDIATE EATING.
      • BOIL COOK so as to ENDURINGLY PUT in BOILING WATER.
        • ROAST COOK OVER FIRE OR IN PAN WITHOUT FAT.
          • FRY COOK IN an INTENSELY HOT PAN CONTAINING OIL.
            • CRISP FRIED so as to BECOME BRITTLE AND SAVOURY.
          • GRILL COOK or prepare food by exposure to fire without pot.
            • STEAM FOOD COOK, USING INTENSELY HOT AIR CONTAINING WATER.
              • BAKE COOK TYPICALLY BREAD OR CAKES by PUTTING in a HOT STOVE for a certain TIME.
                • SMOKE FOOD COOK by PUTTING IN INTENSELY HOT SMOKE.
                • CREATE PRODUCE something BELIEVING that it has NEVER BEEN PRODUCED BEFORE.
                  • FAKE CREATE SOMETHING WHICH PRETENDS TO BE WHAT IT IS NOT.
                    • INVENT CREATE as the FIRST PERSON to INVENT.
                    • PROVIDE PRODUCE, OR CAUSE it TO BE POSSIBLE TO USE, something USEFUL OR to MOVE something USEFUL to a certain PLACE WHERE it is NEEDED.
                      • WEAVE PRODUCE CLOTH USING THREADS.
                        • WRITE PRODUCE a DOCUMENT.
                          • ADDRESS SPEAK OR WRITE INTENDING ANOTHER TO HEAR OR READ AND TO REACT to IT. 
                            • COMMAND ADDRESS someone, USING AUTHORITY, INTENDING to CAUSE that person to ACT RESEMBLE:as one INTENDS him to ACT....
                            • CONGRATULATE ADDRESS someone who is CELEBRATING SOMETHING so as to RITUALLY COMMUNICATE one's GOOD WISHES FOR him/her at THIS TIME.
                            • CONSOLE ADDRESS someone OR INTERACT with someone who is SUFFERING so as to COMMUNICATE one's SYMPATHY with him, and so as to HELP him.
                            • DIALOGUE MUTUAL ADDRESSING EXCHANGED between those who MUTUALLY LISTEN....
                            • DEMAND ADDRESS someone so as to COMMAND that that person ACT:do something.
                            • FAREWELL ADDRESS someone to REPORT that one is FUTURE:about-to LEAVE, OFTEN:typically COMMUNICATING one's GOOD WISHES FOR him.
                            • PERMIT ADDRESS someone with AUTHORITY so as to SAY that one does NOT FORBID what s/he is HOPING to ACT:do.
                            • PRAY ADDRESS DEITIES OFTEN:typically with RITUAL REQUESTS.
                            • PROMISE ADDRESS ANOTHER SAYING that one FUTURE:will CERTAINLY DO something DESIRED by him/her....
                            • ANSWER ADDRESS someone who has ADDRESSED one REQUESTING such an ADDRESS as a REACTION.
                            • REPORT ADDRESS others so as to CAUSE them to BECOME AWARE of a FACT....
                            • REQUEST To ADDRESS someone so as to TRY TO CAUSE him/her TO ACT in a certain way....
                            • TEACH ADDRESS OTHERS so as to TRY to CAUSE them to HAVE SKILLS OR TALENTS.*Teaching by the teacher X, to learner Y, of content Z....
                            • THANK ADDRESS someone so as to SHOW GRATEFUL:gratitude, USING WORDS.
                            • WARN ADDRESS someone so as to CAUSE him to UNDERSTAND what one BELIEVES to be DANGEROUS FOR him.
                            • OATH ADDRESS someone DECLARING INTENSELY that what one is SAYING is TRUE, and in so doing REFERRING to DEITIES as WITNESSES.
                            • COMMUNICATE MUTUALLY ADDRESS so as to CAUSE an IDEA to be UNDERSTOOD.
                            • ADVISE ADDRESS someone INTENDing to HELP  his/her PLANing. ...
                            • CHALLENGE ADDRESS someone so as DEMAND to FIGHT WITH him, OR so as to DEMAND another COURAGEOUS REACTION.
                            • PREACH ADDRESS OTHERS in EXPLAINING SUPERNATURAL TRUTHS.
                            • GREET ADDRESS someone one is MEETING NOW COMMUNICATING one's GOOD WISHES FOR her/him.
                            • REPROACH ADDRESS someone so as to BLAME him/her.
                            • INSULT ADDRESS SOMEONE SO AS TO CAUSE HIM TO BECOME ANGRY
                          • RECORD WRITE so as to TRANSMIT TO FUTURE GENERATIONS.
                            • COMPILE WRITE, USING AND COMBINING OTHER MATERIAL.
                              • PUNCTUATION WRITE SYMBOLS which DIVIDE SENTENCES.
                              • SEW PRODUCE GARMENTS ETC, USING NEEDLE AND THREAD AND CLOTH.
                                • SILK PRODUCTION PRODUCING SILK.
                                  • BEGET PRODUCE OFFSPRING AS a MALE.
                                    • FORGE PRODUCE IRON TOOLS.
                                      • DEPICT PRODUCE a PICTURE of something.[CHANGE THE LABEL? "PAINT" IS ALREADY TAKEN!]
                                        • PRINT PRODUCE INTENSELY MANY of the SAME DOCUMENT, NOT COPYING these.
                                          • SPIN PRODUCE THREAD.
                                            • FROWN PRODUCE WRINKLES ON one's FOREHEAD AS A REACTION TO SOMETHING ONE has become AWARE of.
                                              • BREW 
                                                • PRONOUNCE PRODUCE SPEECH SOUND.
                                                  Old Chinese Criteria

                                                  1. The most common word for producing something is wéi 為.

                                                  2. Chéng 成 focusses on the completion of the process and its success.

                                                  3. Zhì 治 focusses on the orderliness of the result.

                                                  4. Chǎn 產 focusses on the act of production as typically informed by professionalism.

                                                  5. Zào 造 refers to the production of something like a carriage through craftsmanship.

                                                  6. Zhì 制 refers primarily to the production of clothes, but the word later came to refer to all manner of production of artifacts.

                                                  Modern Chinese Criteria

                                                  製造

                                                  製作

                                                  造作

                                                  打造

                                                  生產

                                                  出產

                                                  創作

                                                  發生

                                                  產生

                                                  發出

                                                  生出

                                                  rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

                                                  • A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages ( BUCK 1988) p. 9.11

                                                  • A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages ( BUCK 1988) p. 9.72

                                                  • Lateinische Synonymik ( MENGE) p. 73

                                                  • Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie ( RITTER 1971-2007) p. 7.1418

                                                  • 王力古漢語字典 ( WANG LI 2000) p. 1225

                                                    制,製

                                                    1. Zhi4 制 originally meant "produce", and this use of the word came to be written zhi4 製.

                                                  • Using Chinese Synonyms ( GRACE ZHANG 2010) p. 366

                                                  • Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung ( FRANKE 1989) p. 57B

                                                  Attributions by syntactic funtion

                                                  • vtoN : 125
                                                  • VPtoN : 9
                                                  • n : 5
                                                  • vt0oN.postadVt : 3
                                                  • vttoN1.+N2 : 3
                                                  • nab : 2
                                                  • vt(oN) : 2
                                                  • vt+prep+N : 2
                                                  • vtpost-.VtoN : 2
                                                  • vt1oN1:post-.vt2oN2{OBJECT} : 1
                                                  • VPi : 1
                                                  • vadN : 1

                                                  Attributions by text

                                                  • 百喻經 : 42
                                                  • 管子 : 14
                                                  • 荀子 : 12
                                                  • 賢愚經 : 9
                                                  • 說苑 : 7
                                                  • 楚辭 : 6
                                                  • 孟子 : 6
                                                  • 禮記 : 5
                                                  • 論衡 : 5
                                                  • 史記 : 4
                                                  • 法集要頌經 : 4
                                                  • 韓詩外傳 : 4
                                                  • 莊子 : 4
                                                  • 晏子春秋 : 3
                                                  • 戰國策 : 3
                                                  • 陸機集十一卷 : 3
                                                  • 淮南子 : 3
                                                  • 法言 : 3
                                                  • 妙法蓮華經 : 2
                                                  • 孝經 : 2
                                                  • 臨濟錄 : 2
                                                  • 公孫龍子 : 1
                                                  • 韓非子 : 1
                                                  • 列子 : 1
                                                  • 太平經 : 1
                                                  • 祖堂集 : 1
                                                  • 六祖壇經 : 1
                                                  • 文子 : 1
                                                  • 尚書 : 1
                                                  • 孫子 : 1
                                                  • 呂氏春秋 : 1
                                                  • 鹽鐵論 : 1
                                                  • 周易 : 1
                                                  • 毛詩 : 1

                                                  Words

                                                     wéi OC: ɢʷal MC: ɦiɛ 34 Attributions

                                                  The most common word for producing something is wéi 為.

                                                  • vttoN1.+N2conativetry to produce something (N2) for someone (N1)
                                                  • vtoNmake/produce (physically), construct build (a platform, a house)
                                                  • vtoNfigurativeproduce (problems etc)
                                                  • vtoNiussivehave produced for one (ear-rings to give to the ruler)
                                                  • vtoNmathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
                                                  • vttoN1.+N2produce (something N2) (for someone N1)
                                                  • vttoN1.+N2reflexive.自make an N2 for (oneself)
                                                  • vtoNconstitute, produce something by transforming to it
                                                  • vtoNproduce an image of
                                                  • vtoNobject=abstractproduce (a theory, a thesis, a text)
                                                  • vt1oN1:post-.vt2oN2{OBJECT}produce N1 using N2; make N1 of N2
                                                     shēng OC: sraaŋ MC: ʂɣaŋ 32 Attributions
                                                  • nabactengendering things, originating things
                                                  • vt(oN)produce a contextually determinate thing
                                                  • vt+prep+Nfigurativeproduce
                                                  • vtoNcausativecause to grow, grow (grain); produce; give rise to; be the origin of, originate
                                                  • vtoNcausativegive rise to; produce
                                                  • vtoNfigurativeBUDDH: produce (psychological reactions)
                                                  • nabkindstypes of production, kinds of engendering
                                                  作 / 作 / 作 / 乍   zuò OC: tsaaɡs MC: tsuo̝ zuò OC: tsaals MC: tsɑ zuò OC: tsaaɡ MC: tsɑk zhà OC: dzraaɡs MC: ɖʐɣɛ 25 Attributions
                                                  • vtoNproduce (coal etc); write (text); produce (sound etc)
                                                  • vtoNfigurativegenerate (a thought or plan etc)
                                                  • vt(oN)produce the contextually determinate N
                                                  • vttoN1(.+N2)make N1 out of the contextually determinate N2
                                                     zào OC: sɡuuʔ MC: dzɑu 18 Attributions

                                                  Zào 造 refers to the production of something like a carriage through craftsmanship.

                                                  • nobjectproduct (short for 所造)
                                                  • nabactproduction 造修之具
                                                  • vadNproduced, created
                                                  • vt(oN)produce the contextually determinate N
                                                  • vtoNproduce (fruit etc)
                                                  • vtoNfigurativeproduce, create (resentment)
                                                     chéng OC: djeŋ MC: dʑiɛŋ 16 Attributions

                                                  Chéng 成 focusses on the completion of the process and its success.

                                                  • vt0oN.postadVtverbal complementverbal complement indicating the result of an action/process 化成 transform into, 按成
                                                  • vtoNfinish the making of> make, produce, bring about
                                                  • vtoNfigurativeform (factions etc)
                                                     chǎn OC: sqreenʔ MC: ʂɣɛn 10 Attributions

                                                  Chǎn 產 focusses on the act of production as typically informed by professionalism.

                                                  • nobject(one's own) product; product (of a place)
                                                  • nabactproduction of goods
                                                  • vt+prep+Npassivebe produced from
                                                  • vtoNcause to arise; produce
                                                  生出   shēng chū OC: sraaŋ khljud MC: ʂɣaŋ tɕhʷit 4 Attributions
                                                  • VPtoNproduce cf. BY 不生不出
                                                  • VPimiddle voiceget produced
                                                     zuò OC: skaas MC: tsuo̝ 2 Attributions
                                                  • vtpost-.VtoNproduce, make (something) (with a preceding coverbal phrase indicating the benefactor)
                                                     zhì OC: kjeds MC: tɕiɛi 2 Attributions

                                                  Zhì 制 refers primarily to the production of clothes, but the word later came to refer to all manner of production of artifacts.

                                                  • vtoNproduce (primarily clothes, later also artifacts)
                                                     fā OC: pod MC: pi̯ɐt 2 Attributions
                                                  • vtoNpsychproduce, develop
                                                     jiàng OC: sbaŋs MC: dzi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
                                                  • vtoNproduce, fashion
                                                     gòu OC: koos MC: ku 1 Attribution
                                                  • vtoNmake; ensue (trouble); create
                                                     chí OC: rlɯ MC: ɖɨ 1 Attribution

                                                  Zhì 治 focusses on the orderliness of the result.

                                                  • vtoNorganise the production of
                                                  作成 / 作成 / 作成   zuò chéng OC: tsaaɡs djeŋ MC: tsuo̝ dʑiɛŋ zuò chéng OC: tsaals djeŋ MC: tsɑ dʑiɛŋ zuò chéng OC: tsaaɡ djeŋ MC: tsɑk dʑiɛŋ 1 Attribution
                                                  • VPtoNproduce as a complete product, create so as to be a complete thing
                                                  制匠   zhì jiàng OC: kjeds sbaŋs MC: tɕiɛi dzi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
                                                  • vtoNproduce and fashion, create
                                                  構造   gòu zào OC: koos sɡuuʔ MC: ku dzɑu 1 Attribution
                                                  • VPtoNresultativeproduce
                                                  興發   xīng fā OC: qhɯŋ pod MC: hɨŋ pi̯ɐt 1 Attribution
                                                  • VPtoNfigurativeproduce (a mental attitude, an effect in the mind)
                                                  設作   shè zuò OC: qhjed tsaaɡ MC: ɕiɛt tsɑk 1 Attribution
                                                  • VPtoNproduce
                                                  造成   zào chéng OC: sɡuuʔ djeŋ MC: dzɑu dʑiɛŋ 1 Attribution
                                                  • VPtoNproduce
                                                  造設   zào shè OC: sɡuuʔ qhjed MC: dzɑu ɕiɛt 1 Attribution
                                                  • VPtoNproduce and prepare
                                                     chuī MC: tsyhwe OC: khjol 1 Attribution
                                                  • vtoNcast (bronze instruments)
                                                  化成   huà chéng OC: hŋʷraals djeŋ MC: hɣɛ dʑiɛŋ 0 Attributions
                                                  • VPtoNresultativeproduce through transformation, engender through transformation
                                                     qǐ OC: khɯʔ MC: khɨ 0 Attributions
                                                  • vtoNproduce

                                                  Existing SW for

                                                  Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: