Taxonomy of meanings for 下:

  • xià (OC: ɢraaʔ MC: ɦɯa) 胡雅切 上 廣韻:【賤也去也後也底也降也胡雅切四 】
  • xià (OC: ɢraaʔ MC: ɦɯa) 胡雅切 上 廣韻:【下古文 】
  • xià (OC: ɢraas MC: ɦɯa) 胡駕切 去 廣韻:【行下又胡雅切 】
    • BELOW
      • viacttake the lower position, maintain the lower position, stay below something else
      • vt+Nfigurativeput (oneself) lower then N, maintain lower status in respect to N
      • n{PLACE}adVbelow
      • n[adN]what is low in the terrain; what is below one
      • nabfigurativelow position; lowness of musical pitch
      • nadNlow, lower
      • nadNfigurativelower > inferior; of the lower world; nether; under one's command
      • nadNfigurativebelow 下民
      • nadVfigurativeat the lower levels
      • npost-.N+ZHIbelow
      • npost-.N+ZHIfigurativeat a lower abstract level
      • npost-Nfigurativefig. below of N (e.g. > among the disciples of N)
      • npost-Ninsideunder (i.e. inside) (the tent etc)
      • npost-Nplacethe lower part; the place below something; low-lying place; the area at the foot of (a mountain)
      • npost-Nfigurativebelow; at the bottom of something; in status: lower
      • nt(post-N).adSbelow the contextually determinate N
      • vadVtextbelow (in the text)
      • vpostadVdirectiondirectional verbal complement: to V in downwards direction
      • vtoNstativebe below N in status
      • vibe directed downwards
      • n[post-N]the position below everthing else
      • n(adN)the place above the contextually determinate N
      • n[adN]what is below> the earth
      • vadVderivedat the lower level; at least 上...下
      • nadNlower
      • under (the walls of a city) and thus near>NEAR
        • npost-.N+ZHIvicinity of N
        • npost-Nplacethe vicinity; near (a city); in front of (a tent etc)
      • LOW
          • act so as to move lowerDESCEND
            • vifigurativego down (figuratively)
            • viprocessgo down
            • vt(oN.)-Vgo down to the contextually determinate place to V
            • vt(oN)go down, get down (from a contextually determinate place); dismount from a carriage
            • vtoNdescend from
            • vtoNcausativelet somebody or something descend, cause something to come down; cause someone to dismount
            • vtoNN=aimdescend into
            • specifically>FALL
              • viprocessmove down> fall, come down
      • of low status>HUMBLE
        • reflexive/causative: humble oneself before someone>RESPECT
          • nabdisposition/actionrespectful attitude
          • vtoNhumble oneself before> show respect to 下人"(as a superior) treat others with respect" to treat with humility, treat deferentially (persons whom one is not obliged to treat that way); mix congenially with (those who are of lower status)
          • promise to respect as superior>SURRENDER
            • viactsurrender
            • vtoNsurrender to, submit to
            • vtoNcausativecause to surrender
            • vtoNpassivebe surrendered to
            • I, the humble one>EGO
              • v[adN]N=speakerI, the humble one
            • attitudinal: humble oneself before>RESPECT
              • nabdisposition/actionrespectful attitude
              • vtoNhumble oneself before> show respect to 下人"(as a superior) treat others with respect" to treat with humility, treat deferentially (persons whom one is not obliged to treat that way); mix congenially with (those who are of lower status)
            • characteristic of someone humble>VULGAR
              • vibe vulgar, be base
          • consequently of poor quality>BAD
            • v[adN]N=thingwhat is of inferior quality
            • vadNof lower quality, of the lower kind; inferior
            • vadNsocialon an inferior level of culture
            • vibe of inferior quality, be of a lower kind; be inferior; be of inferior moral mettle
            • vtoNstativebe inferior to N
            • v[adN1.]post-N2the worst example
          • more bad>INFERIOR
            • nadNjunior; inferior
            • vadVat least, in the least elevated level; towards the inferior levels of the society
            • n[adN](.post-N)inferiors
          • regard as inferior>DESPISE
            • vtoNhave no respect for the value of
          • declare to be inferior>CRITICISE
            • vtoN
          • inferieor in learning>STUDENT
            • v[adN]those below (the master) > disciple
          • inferior in status>SUBJECT
            • nsubject
            • nplura subordinate, a (public) servant; those below, the subjects; people of low status
            • DELETEsubjects, inferiors
            • v[adN1.post-N2]one's subjects/subordinates
            • v[adN.](post-N)the subjects of the contextually determinate N
          • cause to become inferior to one>CONQUER
            • vtoNsubjugate, cause to surrender
          • cause to become bad>RUIN
          • “lower” in quantity> LESS
          • in the direction towards below>DOWN
              • humbly receive>SUFFIX
                  “as in 收下 ‘receive’”
                • causative>PUT
                  • vtoNcausativeput down, put (brush) to paper
                  • cause to move down the throat>SWALLOW
                    • vtoN[GET DOWN>] get down one's throat, swallow
                  • cause to move down fast>THROW
                    • cause to move down at a distance>SEND DOWN
                      • vtoNsend down concretely
                      • vtoNfigurativeissue (and order); promulgate (an ordinance or law)
                      • vtoNpassivebe issued, be promulgated
                      • cause to move down(!) information to the general public>PUBLISH
                        • cause a desirable thing to move down(!) into the possession of someone inferior gift>GIVE
                          • vttoN1:postvtoN2figurativehand (N2) down to (a recipient N1); pass over (a memorial N2) to (an official N1 for appraisal);
                    • down-coming and further down in the flow of time>FUTURE
                      • nadNfuture
                      • VPt+V[0]one should not go about V-ing NB: It is quite possible that the syntactic category here should be VPt[0]+V[0].
                  • what is below>EARTH
                    • nearth
                • {late colloquial}EVENT
                  • ncpost-V1{NUM}:postadV2classifier(so and so many) times (Note Hanshu 三下?)