ABOVE  上面

PLACE HIGH IN-RELATION-TO OTHER PLACE.
OVERHIGHER THANHIGHER UP THANON TOP OFATOPONUPON
Antonym

BELOWPLACE that is LOW IN-RELATION-TO something OTHER.

Hypernym

PLACEPART of SPACE that THINGS BE-IN:are-in. -> PARTOBJECT which COMBINES with OTHER OBJECTS to BECOME ONE LARGER WHOLE OBJECT. -> OBJECT[NO HYPERNYM.] WHAT one CAN NAME:refer to. -> PRIME -> N/A

See also

HIGHBIG VERTICALLY.SURPASSBe MORE EXCELLENT OR STRONG IN-RELATION-TO ANOTHER IN ACTION.

Old Chinese Criteria

[ABSTRACT/CONCRETE]

[SPATIAL/TEMPORAL]

1. The standard word referring to what is above or on top is shàng 上.

SPATIAL!, CONCRETE

2. Shàng 尚 is used verbally in an a figurative abstract way referring to higher status.

Tóu 頭 is occasionally used to the upper side of things.

NB: Shàng 尚 is used in various abstract ways and is not normally purely spatial in meaning. See SURPASS.

Modern Chinese Criteria

上面

上邊

上頭

上端

頂端

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

  • De differentiis ( DIFFERENTIAE I) p. 176

    SUPER, SUPRA

    509. Inter Super et supra hoc interest: Super est quod imminet [ Agraetius eminet], supra quod substratum aliquid habet. Item super interdum, aut nimium, aut satis accipimus.

  • 王力古漢語字典 ( WANG LI 2000) p. 233

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • npost-N : 10
  • npost-.N+ZHI : 6
  • nadN : 4
  • n : 3
  • n{PLACE}adV : 1
  • n(adN) : 1
  • nadV : 1
  • n(post-N) : 1
  • NPab : 1

Attributions by text

  • 荀子 : 4
  • 管子 : 4
  • 賢愚經 : 3
  • 莊子 : 2
  • 穆天子傳 : 2
  • 祖堂集 : 2
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 2
  • 孟子 : 2
  • 禮記 : 1
  • 山海經 : 1
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1
  • 臨濟錄 : 1

Words

   shàng OC: ɡljaŋs MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ 27 Attributions

The standard word referring to what is above or on top is shàng 上. >>SPATIAL!, CONCRETE!

  • n(post-N)figurativein the leading position in respect to the contextually determinate N
  • npost-Nfigurativein the leading position in respect to N
  • n(post-N)above the contextually determinate N
  • n{PLACE}adVabove
  • nhigha place above (a river etc) 濮水之上, a place higher than; a place on high
  • npost-Nthe upper side of; upon, on 泰山之上
  • nadNupper; being situated above/upstairs
  • nadNnon-restrictive(Heaven) above (Note that there is no Heaven below or anywhere else.)
  • nadNtextabove (in the text) > the above mentioned/described
  • nadVtextabove (in the text)
  • npost-.N+ZHIplaceon top
  • npost-Nfigurativeabove of N > related to N
  • npost-Nplaceon something; on the top of something; in (an elevated place) (e.g. 堂上 (not: on the roof!)
  • nadNfigurativeChristian Chinese: superior, belonging to a higher order of things
  • n(adN)the position above the contextually determinate other thing N
  • nfigurativethe leading position (above all)
上間   shàng jiān OC: ɡljaŋs kreen MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ kɣɛn 1 Attribution
  • NPaba place above; the upper part of a place; "upstairs"
   tóu OC: doo MC: du 0 Attributions
  • npost-Natop of N

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: