ASCEND  往上升/上

WALK to a MORE HIGH PLACE.
CLIMBCLIMBGO UP/UPWARDMOVE UP/UPWARDRISE (UP)CLAMBER (UP)MOUNTSCALE
Antonymy

DESCEND

Kind Of

WALK

Old Chinese Criteria

[ARCHAIC/CURRENT]

[[BASIC/DERIVED]]

[DIFFICULT/EASY]

[ELEVATED/VULGAR]

[+FIG/LITERAL]

1. Shēng 升 (ant. jiàng 降 "descend") is perhaps the most general word dedicated to the meaning of "going up", and the word often has a literary, dignified flavour.

[GENERAL]; [[BASIC]], [[CURRENT]]

2. Shàng 上 (ant. xià 下 "descend"), on the basis of the general meaning "above", comes to refer to the moving to the position on top of or above something else, and the word has no elevated literary flavour.

[GENERAL]; [[CURRENT]], [[DERIVED]]

3. Dēng 登 refers to one entering a vehicle or moving onto a higher surface of any kind, typically (but not always) in a dignified manner.

[ELEVATED!]; [[CURRENT+]]

4 Pān 攀 refers to an arduous movement across difficult terrain to a higher position, supporting oneself by objects that one can hold on to as one is moving upwards.

[DIFFICULT+], [LITERAL]; [[BASIC]], [[CURRENT]]

5. Yuán 緣 refers to an often arduous movement in difficult "terrain" and guided by certain features of that terrain.

[DIFFICULT]; [[DERIVED]]

6. Chéng 乘 refers to the mounting of a vehicle, specifically.

[SPECIFIC]; [[CURRENT]]

7. Jī 躋 refers to ascending a burial mound as part of ritual.

[ARCHAIC], [SPECIFIC]; [[RARE]]

8. Zhì 陟 "poetic: scale a mountain" (ant. jiàng 降 "descend") is a rare archaising words with highly restricted usage.

[ARCHAIC], [SPECIFIC]; [[RARE]]

9. Jí 即 (ant.* xùn 遜 "resign a ruler's position", or perhaps also shàn 禪 "resign the throne") is always metaphorically "ascend (the throne)".

[SPECIFIC]; [[CURRENT]], [[DERIVED]]

Modern Chinese Criteria

登高

往上

攀登

登攀

攀緣

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis, based on CL. 18.11.2003. CH/

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

ASCEND

scandere reers to mounting a steep slope or height, where the ascent is connected with exertion and generally brings hands and feet into use.

ascendere refers quite generally to ascending a height, without any special nuance.

escendere refers to mounting a height which is fortified by ramparts or wall and the like, or which is highly visible, as a rostrum.

conscendere is to mount something in the company of others, typically a ship or the like.

inscendere is mount an enclosed space, typically a carriage etc.

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 243

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 135

ROBERTS 1998 Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography 70

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 89
  • vt(oN) : 14
  • vi : 6
  • vt prep N : 5
  • vt[oN] : 3
  • vtoN : 2
  • VPi : 1
  • VPtoN : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 26
  • 韓非子 : 11
  • 論衡 : 7
  • 祖堂集 : 7
  • 禮記 : 6
  • 論語 : 6
  • 臨濟錄 : 6
  • 毛詩 : 6
  • 說苑 : 5
  • 呂氏春秋 : 5
  • 百喻經 : 5
  • 莊子 : 4
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 4
  • 賢愚經 : 4
  • 史記 : 4
  • 荀子 : 3
  • 楚辭 : 2
  • 管子 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • 山海經 : 1
  • 孟子 : 1
  • 翻譯名義集 : 1
  • 黃帝內經 : 1
  • 法言 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1
  • 法句經 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1

Words

   dēng OC: tɯɯŋ MC: təŋ 48 Attributions

Dēng 登 refer to one entering a vehicle or moving onto a higher surface of any kind, typically (but not always) in a dignified manner. [ELEVATED!]; [[CURRENT]]

  • vadNascending; travelling up; who have risen or ascended 登仙 "immortals who have risen up"
  • vt(oN)ascend (often in a dignified way), go up
  • vt+prep+Nascend; climb up (登乎)
  • vtoNclimb up, go up; also by flying: 豋天 "rise to Heaven".
  • vtoNfigurativerise to the level of > reach the level of (such as a rank, position, etc.)
  • vt+prep+Ncausativebe put up on
   shàng OC: ɡljaŋʔ MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ 26 Attributions

Shàng 上 (ant. xià 下 "descend"), on the basis of the general meaning "above", comes to refer to the moving to the position on top of or above something else. [GENERAL]; [[CURRENT]], [[DERIVED]]

  • viprocessgo up
  • vt(oN)climb (the contextually determinate place)
  • vt[oN]go up; move upwards
  • vtoNfigurativego up to > embark on > be involved in
  • vtoNN=placego up (to a certain elevated place); climb up (a tree etc.)
  • vtpostadVdirectiondirectional complement indicating the upwards movement of V 走上
  • vt prep Nascend N
  • viactmove upwards (into the air)
   shēng OC: qhljɯŋ MC: ɕɨŋ 14 Attributions

Shēng 升 (ant. jiàng 降 "descend") is the general word dedicated to the meaning of "going up". [GENERAL]; [[BASIC]], [[CURRENT]]

  • viactgo up
  • vtoNrise up; scale up; go up; go up to
  • vtoNpassivebe scaled, be ascended
   chéng OC: ɢjɯŋ MC: ʑɨŋ 11 Attributions

Chéng 乘 refers to the mounting of a vehicle, specifically. [SPECIFIC]; [[CURRENT]]

  • vt(oN)continuoushave ascended (the contextually determinate object, carriages, vehicles etc)
  • vtoNascend; board (a boat etc); try to gain the high ground or a wall; scale; 
  • vtoNcontinuoushave ascended > ride in (a vehicle, a boat)
  • vtoNcausativecause to get up onto a vehicle
  • v(toN)ascend the contextually determinate N
   shēng OC: qhljɯŋ MC: ɕɨŋ 5 Attributions
  • vtoNascend, go up to
   zhì OC: tɯɡ MC: ʈɨk 4 Attributions

Zhì 陟 "poetic: scale a mountain" (ant. jiàng 降"descend") are rare archaising words with highly restricted usage. [ARCHAIC], [SPECIFIC]; [[RARE]]

  • vtoNpoetic, archaic: scale, ascend (mountain)
   jí OC: tsɯɡ MC: tsɨk 3 Attributions

Jí 即 (ant.* xùn 遜 "resign a ruler's position", or perhaps also shàn 禪 "resign the throne") is always metaphorically "ascend (the throne)". [SPECIFIC]; [[CURRENT]], [[DERIVED]]

  • vtoNaccede to, move (up) into, ascend (throne)
   jī OC:  MC: tsei 2 Attributions

Jī 躋 refers to ascending a burial mound as part of ritual. [ARCHAIC], [SPECIFIC]; [[RARE]]

  • viactto ascend
  • vtoNascend ceremoniously
   pān OC: phraan MC: phɣan 1 Attribution

Pān 攀 refers to an arduous movement across difficult terrain to a higher position, supporting oneself by objects that one can hold on to as one is moving upwards. [DIFFICULT+], [LITERAL]; [[BASIC]], [[CURRENT]]

  • vt(oN)pull oneself up (by clinging to a heavy object) and climb up
  • vtoNclimb up to with difficulty, typically - but not always - by holding onto something as support
   yuàn OC: k-lons MC: jiɛn 1 Attribution

Yuán 緣 refers to an often arduous movement in difficult "terrain" and guided by certain features of that terrain. [DIFFICULT]; [[DERIVED]]

  • vtoNclimb (a tree) 緣木
   líng OC: b-rɯŋ MC: lɨŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNascend; go right up to; scale, climb up
上昇   shàng shēng OC: ɡljaŋʔ qhljɯŋ MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ ɕɨŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNascend
升仙   shēng xiān OC: qhljɯŋ sen MC: ɕɨŋ siɛn 1 Attribution
  • VPiresultativerise up so as to V 升仙 "rise up so as to become an immortal"
   dào MC: dawH OC: ɡ-luus 1 Attribution
  • vtoNtread on
   téng MC: dong OC: lɯɯŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNfly up (a difficult mountain); ascend (a steep difficult terrain)
   jiàn MC: dzjenX OC: dzenʔ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNstep up onto: ascend (throne)
   pá OC: braa MC: bɣɛ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNpost-Han: climb
   jiē OC: kriid MC: kɣɛi 0 Attributions
  • vtoNpassivebe ascended (不可階而升)
   jī OC:  MC: tsei 0 Attributions
  • viactto ascend
上來   shàng lái OC: ɡljaŋʔ m-rɯɯ MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ ləi 0 Attributions
  • VPtpostadVdirectioncomplex directional complement indicating the upward movement of V, as well as the movement towards to the speaker 走上來 come running up (towards the speaker)
攀緣   pān yuán OC: phraan k-lon MC: phɣan jiɛn 0 Attributions
  • VPiactclimb up by holding on to something (SANGUOZHI)
登陟   dēng zhì OC: tɯɯŋ tɯɡ MC: təŋ ʈɨk 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNascend, climb up
車 / 車   chē OC: khlja MC: tɕhɣɛ jū OC: kla MC: ki̯ɤ 0 Attributions
  • viactZGC: ascend a vehicle

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: