Taxonomy of meanings for 重:

  • chóng (OC: doŋ MC: ɖioŋ) 直容切 平 廣韻:【複也疊也宜容切又直勇直用二切六 】
  • zhòng (OC: doŋʔ MC: ɖioŋ) 直隴切 上 廣韻:【多也厚也善也愼也直隴切又直龍直用二切四 】
  • zhòng (OC: doŋs MC: ɖioŋ) 柱用切 去 廣韻:【更爲也柱用切又直容切三 】
  • 重 zhòng (OC: doŋʔ MC: ɖioŋ) 直隴切 上 廣韻:【多也厚也善也愼也直隴切又直龍直用二切四 】
    • HEAVY
      • v[adN]what is heavy; the heavy
      • vad.VtoNreference=NVt a substantial N (also with vtt)
      • vadNheavy, substantial; of considerable monetary value
      • vadVfigurativeheavily, intensely, substantially (bribe someone etc)
      • vibe physically heavy; be substantial
      • vtoNhave the weight of
      • vtoNputativeconsider as heavy to lift, consider as too heavy to lift
      • vadNfigurativearduous, hard
      • vtoNcausativederived: make substantial (in monetary terms etc)
      • subject: what is heavy>BURDEN
        • nsubjectwhat is heavy, a heavy load, a heavy burden
        • nabfigurativea metaphorically heavy burden
        • vtoNcausativeweigh (yourself) down
        • vadNburdensome
        • specifically: advanced “bearing a heavy child”>PREGNANT
          • viSHIJING: be pregnant
        • specifically: vehicle for heavy burden>CHARIOT
          • nwar chariot for the transportation of heavy goods
      • metaphorical>IMPORTANT
        • v[adN]what is important
        • npost-Nthe most important thing in N
        • vadNimportant; serious (crimes etc)
        • vigradedbe powerful, significant, striking; be in a strong position: be of great (political) weight 最重
        • vipost-Nas important as N 隨侯珠之重 STRUCTURALLY MOST PUZZLING
        • vt+prep+Nhave great influence on, be very important for, be influential with
        • vtoNcausativecause to be important, introduce as politically important
        • vtoNcausativecause (oneself) to be (more) important
        • vtoNgradedconsider as important; consider as a serious matter, take seriously, attach importance to; be chiefly concerned with; 最重
        • vtoNpassivebe regarded as important by
        • vtoNreflexive.自putative: regard oneself as important, attitudinal: treat oneself as important
        • abstract:POWER
          • nabsocialpolitical influence, political weight; political power
          • v[adN]pluralpowerful person, political heavy-weight; "one of the big boys"
          • vadNinfluential; powerful
          • vadVwith one's political power?? ??? ????
          • vichangebecome more powerful; gain political importance
          • vigradedbe of great political or social importance; be powerful; be politically influential; be preponderant; have great influence (with someone)
          • vtoNcausativecause to be powerful; add to someone's political weight
          • vtoNcausativebe made powerful
        • degree>INTENSELY
          • vt+prep+Nabgradedbe more serious than doing so and so
          • vadNsubstantial (rewards); serious (disease)
          • vadVintensely, very much; heavily; substantially
          • vifigurativebe intensive, be strong, be heavy; be grave
          • vpost-V.postadNserious (disease etc)
          • vtoNcausativecause to become even more intense, aggravate, exacerbate
          • vpostadVintensely, powerfully
          • attitude>SERIOUS
            • viactserious; endowed with social weight; act with conviction; have the courage of one's convictions
            • rhetorical>EMPHASISE
              • vtoN
            • legal practice>SEVERE
              • vadNharsh, heavy, severe (of punishments etc); stern
              • vadVheavily, harshly
              • vibe severe; be harsh
              • vichangebecome heavy (taxes); severe; harsh
              • vtoNbe severe with respect to (e.g. light offences); treat harshly (an innocent person)
              • vtoNcausativemake severe, cause to be heavy (e.g. taxes); cause to be severe (punishments)
              • vtoNputativeconsider as (excessively) severe in one's punishments??
          • taste: strong>SAVOURY
            • vadNsavoury, tasty, "heavy" 重酒
          • specifically: affecting one intensely>SAD
            • change>INCREASE
              • vtoNmaximise; intensify
          • price>EXPENSIVE
            • vadNsubstantial is monetary terms
            • viexpensive
            • vigradedbe more expensive
          • putative>ADMIRE
              • superiors>RESPECT
                • vadNimportant; esteemed; morally weighty
                • vt+prep+Nattach importance to> show respect for
                • vtoNattitudinalregard as being of great importance and as deserving great respect (a person or a thing); treat as important
                • vtoNpassivebe regarded with great respect (by someone)
              • resulting attitude>PARTIAL
                • vtoNbe partial to
      • 重 chóng (OC: doŋ MC: ɖioŋ) 直容切 平 廣韻:【複也疊也宜容切又直勇直用二切六 】
        • cho2ngREPEAT
          • vadVrepeatedly; once again; twice
          • viactdo the same thing again
          • vt(+V[0])repeat the contextually determinate action
          • vadNrepeated
          • vtoNobject=humanrestate the crucial things to N
          • grammaticalised:AGAIN
            • vadVdoubling> another time, yet again; once again
            • specifically: twice>TWO
              • vadNdouble-layered
              • vadNmathematical termCHEMLA 2003: double, reiteratedJZ 6.10, Liu Hui's comm: 是謂重今有也 "This refers to reiterated of supposing." JZ 6.11, Liu Hui's comm: 此亦重今有之義 "This has has also the structural pattern of a reiterated of supposing.Cf. also JZ 6.28, Liu Hui's comm, where the reiteration is more than twice.For 重今有 we have three structural analyses:1. transitive verb: repeat the supposing. "This refers to repeating the supposing." [However, 重 is not current as a verb elsewhere in JZ.]2. adnominal verb>adjective: repeated supposing. "This refers to repeated supposing." [This seems to work in all instances we have seen so far.]3. adverb: suppose repeatedly. "This refers to supposing repeatedly." [However, in 重今有之義 this is most uncomfortable.]We need to insist on a clear answer why we attribute one and not the other of the structures to the phrase in any given context. Is the Chinese underdetermined, structurally?
              • vadVmore than once, a second time; doubly
              • vtoNhave a double N; have a two-layered N
              • vtoNcausativemake double, double up
              • vadNderivedmany-layered
            • general>OFTEN
              • vadVagain and again> often, repeatedly
          • LAYER
            • nlayer (of clouds, or walls etc); storey (of building)
            • ncpost-V{NUM}.+NN with x-layers; x-layered N; x layers of N
            • vadNlayered, in layers
          • implicate>INFLUENCE
            • vtoNimplicate, involve HANSHU: 事發相重 "implicate each other "