Taxonomy of meanings for 來:

  • lái (OC: m-rɯɯ MC: ləi) 落哀切 平 廣韻:【至也及也還也又姓後漢來歙光武姑子蜀志云荆楚名族有黃門侍郎來恒俗作來落哀切二十五 】
    • lái 來COME
      • vt(oN)come to a contextually determinate place (i.e. the place where the speaker currently is)
      • vtoNcausativecause to come; attract to one; bring in
      • vt(oN)N=placecome to this place
      • vt[oN.]-V[0]to come in order to V; come so as to V; come for the purpose of Ving
      • vt[0](oN)Exclamatory, slightly transferred sense: come to a contextually determinate place (i.e. the place where the speaker currently is)!> come along!
      • vtoNcome to a place
      • vpostadVdirectiondirectional complement for verbs and verb phrases of movement or change (movement towards the speaker, sometimes also more abstract: returning to a prior state) (can be seperated from the verb by an object)
      • vtpost-.VtoNpurposecolloquial: come for the purpose of Ving (in this construction lái seems to be already grammaticalized to a certain degree, however, it still has to be regarded as main verb)
      • nabeventcoming; arrival
      • vt(oN1).-VtoN2come to Vt the N
      • vi.redintensitive(frequently) come
      • vt(oN)futurewill come to one
      • vt[oN.]-V[0]imperativecome to V!
      • vadNfrom which one has come 來處
      • vt(oN)imperativecome (here)!
      • vi+N{SUBJ}the subject N comes
      • nabeventthe occurrence
      • vi.adVcome in order to V
      • vt[oN]come to the place N where the speaker is
      • come back> lái 來RETURN
        • viactreturn (from a mission); return to a place
        • vt+V[0]OBI: return from V-ing
        • vtoNreturn to
        • vt[oN]N=placecome (again); return to this place
      • come and!> lái 來IMPERATIVE MARKER
        • vi[0]+V[0]imperativecome and V!, V!
    • abstract: lái 來ARISE
      • viprocesscome to pass, arise
      • nabeventarising, occurrence
      • what is to come> lái 來FUTURE
        • v[adN]what is to come, the future; the next thing
        • vadNOBI: coming, forthcoming; future
        • viprocessoccur in the future; come in the future
        • immediate future> lái 來NEXT
          • vadNthe next time unit, taking the present one as the point of departure
      • having arisen> lái 來SINCE
        • vpost-N.adSsince
        • vpostadV.adSsince V
        • vpostS1.adS2since S1, S2
        • at the time since has arisen> lái 來DURING
          • vpostadNduring the last 夜來 "during the last night"
      • command to come> lái/lài 來SUMMON
        • vt(oN)iussiveorder the contextually determinate person to come
        • try to command to come and support one> lái 來RALLY
          • vt(oN)rally to the contextually determinate person
          • vtoNcausativecause to rally to
      • cause to be made to come> lái 來BRING
        • vtoNcausativecause to come> bring and submit (typically to one's leader)
      • grammaticalised: lái 來WEAK VERBAL SUFFIX
        • vpostadV.adN"adjective-marker"???? (Look for more examples to see how this works!)
        • vpostadVcolloquial suffix (continuative) "having V-ed"
        • vpostadVperfectiveverbal suffix specifying the direction of the action towards the speaker and the completion or successful performance of an action