Taxonomy of meanings for 由:

  • yóu (OC: liw MC: jiu) 以周切 平 廣韻:【從也經也用也行也又姓史記有由余 】
    • FROM
      • vtoN.adVcoming forth from, from
      • vtoN.adVfigurativefrom (abstractly, non spatially), taking as a point of departure
      • vtoNcome out through, emerge through, emerge from
      • vtoNfigurativecome from, arise from; have as a basis
      • temporal>SINCE
        • vtoN.adS
      • action: take one’s cue from>CONFORM
        • vt(oN)conform to the contextually determinate pattern N
        • vtoN.adVreflexive.己following (oneself)> following one's own instincts to V
        • vtoNtake as one's starting point, start out from; follow as a path or course of action
        • vtoNreflexive.自take as one's point of departure, follow
        • vtoNpassivebe followed
        • specifically: instruments>USE
          • vtoN.postadVusing (mostly negated)
          • [rare] human object???>EMPLOY
            • vtoN
    • object>BASIS
      • nabcause > base, origin; reason
      • for action>OPPORTUNITY
        • nabmetaphysicalopportunity, chance 無由 "have no chance (to VERB)"
      • physical: what something comes from>CAUSE
        • nabmetaphysicalthe wherefrom of things, the source of the existence of things
        • nabpsychthe cause from which something flows
        • vtoN1.adN2caused by> by
        • grammaticalised: logical>BECAUSE
          • vt+prep+N.adVV because of N
          • vt+prep+Sbe because of S
          • vtoN.adV(to V) because of Nab
          • vtoN.postadSbecause of N
          • vtoNbe because of, follow as a result of
          • vtoNPab{S}socialbe because of S
          • vtoS.adVbecause of S
          • nablogicalwhat one conforms to/follows: subjective reason, reason followed in action 各有由
          • nabphysical
          • nabpsychological
      • passage>THROUGH
        • vtoNpass through (the door); pass along (a way or path)
        • vtoN.adValong (a way)
      • grammaticalised>PASSIVE MARKER
        • vtoN.adV{PASS}passive marker
      • grammaticalised: sequence>THEREUPON
        • vtoN.adVN=timeafter 由此 "henceforth"
    • =猶RESEMBLE
      • vtoNcopulacopula-like verb: be like; be no better than
      • vtoScopulabe just like S (comparing of two facts)
      • vt0oN.postVcopula(to V) just like (something or somebody else)
      • vtoNPab{S}copulabe just like S (comparing of two facts)
      • vt+V1.postV2(The SUBJECT V2-s) as if it V1-ed
      • vt+V[0]copulabe like V-ing; be as if V-ing
      • vtoNmathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
      • vtoNabN=actbe like
      • vtoNstativebe similar to
      • vtoVabstractbe like V-ing
      • vtoNderived聖人之於百姓也其猶赤子 "the relation of the sage to the people should be like the relation to small babies": be like the relation to
      • vt+V[0]copulabe like V; be essentially the same as V; be not better or more difficult than V
      • vtoNPab{S}copulabe like, be just like (of two facts) for 猶
      • vtoScopulabe like S (where S is not nominalised), be just like (of two facts) for 猶
      • grammaticalised>STILL
        • vadVas before> still
        • logical>NONETHELESS
          • vadV=猶 nonetheless