ALSO  

ADDING something to what has ALREADY been SAID.
MOREOVERTOOAS WELLBESIDESIN ADDITIONADDITIONALLYFURTHERMOREFURTHERMOREOVER
Taxonoymy

EVEN

Antonymy

NOT

See also

ANDWITHTOGETHER

Kind Of

ADD

Old Chinese Criteria

[OBJECT-SCOPE/PREDICATE-SCOPE/SUBJECT-SCOPE]

[ADDITIVE/ADVERSATIVE]

1. Yòu 又 which focusses on the predicate "(THE SUBJECT) moreover also (PREDICATES)".

[PREDICATE-SCOPE]

2. Yì 亦 which focusses on the subject "also (THE SUBJECT) likewise (PREDICATES)".

[SUBJECT-SCOPE]

3. Qiě 且 focusses on the whole sentence or the whole predicate and indicates that "also (SENTENCE2) (IN ADDITION TO SENTENCE 1) is/was true" or that "also VERB PHRASE 2 IN ADDITON TO VERB PHRASE 1 applies".

[SENTENCE-SCOPE]

4. Yóu 猶/由 "still, also" typically has an adversative nuance.

[ADVERSATIVE]

Modern Chinese Criteria

不但

不僅

不只

不單

不光

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis, based on CL. 18.11.2003. CH.

Old Chinese Contrasts

1. Yòu 又 has the predicate as its scope and claims that the predicate applies in addition to other predicates; yì 亦 has the subject as its scope and claims that the subject, in addition to other subjects is characterised correctly by the predicate; qiě 且 has the whole sentence as its scope and claims that this sentence expresses something that holds true in addition to other things.

2. Yòu 又 is typically additive in nuance "in addition, also" and very rarely contrastive; yì 亦 is regularly contrastive "nonetheless also; nonetheless also, in spite of the difference", but this contrastive effect is sometimes neutralised to produce the effect of a pure "also the subject". Qiě 且 is emphatically pure in its additive nuance and always means "in addition, also", never anything like "in addition nonetheless it is also true...".

3. Qiě 且 has a modal function and regularly introduces non-narrative new considerations, whereas yòu 又 is rarely used in theoretical contexts to means something like "the something is moreover also characterised in general by the predicate". Yì 亦 is common both in narrative ( 亦云 "they concurred") and in non-narrative ( 亦然 "be also like that") contexts.

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.461.418

ENCORE.AUSSI

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • padV : 48
  • padV.post-S : 38
  • padV.postN{SUBJ}:postS : 27
  • padS1.postS2 : 26
  • PPadV.postN{SUBJ}:postS : 24
  • vadV : 8
  • PPadV : 8
  • padV.(postN{SUBJ}:)post-S : 6
  • pad.VtoN : 5
  • padV.postN{SUBJ}:post-S : 5
  • PPadS1.postS2 : 5
  • padN{PRED} : 4
  • padV1.postV2 : 4
  • padV.postN{SUBJ} : 4
  • vt+prep+N : 3
  • padS1.post-S2 : 2
  • padV.postN:postS : 2
  • vt(+N.)adV : 2
  • vadV.postS : 2
  • NPadV.postN:postS : 2
  • padV0.post-S : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 42
  • 百喻經 : 31
  • 春秋左傳 : 29
  • 孟子 : 23
  • 論語 : 17
  • 荀子 : 16
  • 莊子 : 12
  • 祖堂集 : 12
  • 說苑 : 10
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 7
  • 墨子 : 3
  • 列子 : 3
  • 呂氏春秋 : 3
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 3
  • 賢愚經 : 3
  • 六祖壇經 : 3
  • 臨濟錄 : 2
  • 笑林一卷 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 史記 : 1
  • 法集要頌經 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1

Words

   yì OC: k-laɡ MC: jiɛk 105 Attributions

Yì 亦 which focusses on the subject "also (THE SUBJECT) likewise (PREDICATES)". [SUBJECT-SCOPE]

  • padV0.post-Salso (modifying a subjectless verbal expression)
  • padN{PRED}also
  • padS1.postS2Moreover S1 (in addition to S2)
  • padV.(postN{SUBJ}:)post-Salso (with omitted subject)
  • padV.post-Salso under the circumstances specified in S
  • padV.post-Srepeatedboth... and 亦...亦
  • padV.postN{SUBJ}:postSlikewise; also the subject
  • padVpredicatelikewise; also; as well (referring to predicate, often with repetition of the verb)
  • padVsubjectlikewise, also (sometimes with omitted antecedent, as in 盜亦有道乎?)
  • DELETE
  • padS1.post-S2:postS3if S2, S1 likewise holds , as in S3
  • padS1.post-S2also under the circumstances specified in S1
   yòu OC: ɢʷɯs MC: ɦɨu 38 Attributions

Yòu 又 which focusses on the predicate "(THE SUBJECT) moreover also (PREDICATES)". [PREDICATE-SCOPE]

  • padV.post-Salso the predicate; also the object; in addition; moreover; to make things worse
  • padV.postN:postSalso
  • padV.postN{SUBJ}:post-Ssentence connective: moreover, in addition; in addition even
  • pad.VtoNreference=Nalso the object N
  • padS1.postS2also
  • padS1.postS2but also; but there again
  • padV.postN{SUBJ}:post-Sreference=subjectthe subject V-s too
   qiě OC:  MC: tshɣɛ 25 Attributions

Qiě 且 focusses on the whole sentence or the whole predicate and indicates that "also (SENTENCE2) (IN ADDITION TO SENTENCE 1) is/was true" or that "also VERB PHRASE 2 IN ADDITON TO VERB PHRASE 1 applies". [SENTENCE-SCOPE]

  • padS1.postS2moreover, and also; and, by the way; in any case
  • padV1.postV2moreover, and (between verbs) 且。。。且
亦復   yì fù OC: k-laɡ buɡs MC: jiɛk bɨu 24 Attributions
  • PPadV.postN{SUBJ}:postSalso the subject, also under the new circumstances
  • PPadV.postSalso the predicatealso the predicate
又復   yòu fù OC: ɢʷɯs buɡs MC: ɦɨu bɨu 9 Attributions
  • PPadS1.postS2in addition
  • PPadVin addition, also
   fù OC: buɡs MC: bɨu 6 Attributions
  • padS.postN{TOP}moreover
  • vadValso, in addition
   yǔ OC: k-laʔ MC: ji̯ɤ 5 Attributions
  • vt(+N.)adValongside, alike, also
  • vt+prep+Nbe also in/among the N
   yě OC: lalʔ MC: jɣɛ 4 Attributions
  • padV.postN{SUBJ}emphaticalso in this case> even N (the N often being a preposed topic)
且也   qiě yě OC: lalʔ MC: tshɣɛ jɣɛ 4 Attributions
  • PPadS1.postS2Moreover; Moreover (by the way, as an additional thought)
   jiān OC: kleem MC: kem 2 Attributions
  • vadV.postSmoreover; concurrently
又時   yòu shí OC: ɢʷɯs ɡljɯ MC: ɦɨu dʑɨ 2 Attributions
  • NPadV.postN:postSsentence connective: another time, at another occasion
   fǎn OC: panʔ MC: pi̯ɐn 1 Attribution
  • vadVlikewise, in return
   yóu OC: k-lu MC: jɨu 1 Attribution

Yóu 猶/由 "still, also" typically has an adversative nuance. [ADVERSATIVE]

  • vadVlogicstill, along the same lines
   jì OC: kɯds MC: kɨi 0 Attributions
  • padS1.+S2one the one hand (... and on the other hand)

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: