Taxonomy of meanings for 先:

  • xiàn (OC: sɯɯns MC: sen) 蘇佃切 去 廣韻:【先後猶娣姒又姓出河東又蘇前切 】
  • xiān (OC: sɯɯn MC: sen) 蘇前切 平 廣韻:【先後也又姓左傳晉有先軫蘇前切又蘇薦切四 】
    • PRECEDE
      • vtoNattitudinalread xiàn: give precedence to, give priority to; also in contexts which do not connote a positive attitude: take (and therefore:remove) first
      • vt[oN]precede all others, go first; come first, be first; take precedence over all others
      • vtoNread xiàn: precede, anticipate, German: zuvorkommen, Danish: komme i forkøbet
      • nsubjectwhat has priority, who comes first, what is first
      • vtoN.adVread xiàn: before 先天地生
      • vadNpreceding> former, late 先君 "the ruler preceding the present one" 先帝 "the late Emperor"
      • vadVsuperlativeas the first, first
      • vt+prep+Nread xiàn?: to make one's first move towards (somebody) (before he has done anything); take the initiative to make contact with
      • vt0oN.adSread xiàn: preceding N, S happened
      • vadVfirst stepas the first thing, to start with, before anything else, before something else
      • vtoN1.-v{NUM}adN2:adSbefore N
      • vt+V[0]causativegive precedence to V-ing (i.e. cause the V-ing to precede)
      • vtoNcausativecause to precede; let go first; make come first; give ritual precedence to
      • vt(oN)precede the contextually determinate N; have priority over
      • vtoNfigurativetake precedence over
      • vt+prep+Nfigurativetake precedence over
      • active>LEAD
        • v[adN]socialthose who are in the leading position
        • nsubjectthe first, the leader; he who leads something on
        • vadVahead, as first, in front
        • viactgo first, take the lead, lead the way
        • vtoNfigurativelead; German: mit gutem Beispiel vorangehen
        • vttoN1+.vtoN2figurativeto lead N1 by means of N2
      • putative, metaphorical: give precedence to>PREFER
        • vtoNgive priority to; give precedence to; show a preference for
        • IMPORTANT
          • vadN
          • vtoNputativeregard as the more/most important
    • in time>EARLY
      • vadNearly, earlier
      • vadVat an early stage; in good time, before it is too late
      • vadVnegativetoo early, earlier than it should be
      • vtoN.adSbefore
      • vtoN.adVanteceding N, preceding N, acting earlier than N;
      • vadVbeforeat an earlier stage
      • vtoNbe earlier than someone N, Danish: komme i forkøbet
      • vadVfirst of all
      • vadNderivedearlier in a text
      • vt[oN]arrive earlier than others
      • medieval: grammaticalised>ALREADY
        • vadV
      • earlier than present>PAST
        • vad.VadNformer 先美人
        • vadNformer, earlier
        • vadVat some earlier time, before this, earlier
      • earlier generation>PARENT
        • npluralparents (dualis!) LUNHENG
        • ANCESTOR
          • npredecessor> ancestor
      • dead>DIE
        • vadNformer; deceased