DESCENDANT  後代

HUMAN HAVING a DEFINED OTHER HUMAN as FATHER, MOTHER, OR ANCESTOR.
SUCCESSORSCIONHEIR(DESCENDANTS) OFFSPRINGPROGENYFAMILYLINEAGELAW ISSUEARCHAIC SEEDFRUIT OF ONE'S LOINS
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The general current and common abstract term for offspring is hòu 後 (ant. xiān 先 "forbears").

2. Yì 裔 (ant. zǔ 祖 "ancestors"), a fairly rare word in pre-Buddhist texts, can refer to any offspring of a clan or occasionally a people.

3. Zhòu 冑 refers to royal offspring.

4. Yìn 胤 refers to distant offspring.

5. Zòng 從 (ant. dí 嫡 "direct heirs") refers to the younger generation members of the same clan who do not immediately inherit.

6. Zǐ 子 refers to children of any sex. See CHILD

7. Sūn 孫 refers to all descendants lower than the generation of children.

8. Shù 庶 and niè 孽 (ant. zhèng 正 "descendant in direct line") refer to offspring by other women than the main wife.

9. Dí 嫡 / 適 (ant. zòng 從 "descendants who are not heirs") refers specifically to the direct legitimate heir.

10. Zǐ zhí 子姪 is a general term for descendants.

11. Zǐ xìng 子姓 specifically refers to the sons and grandsons.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

HUMAN AFFAIRS 23. 後代子孫。

後,通稱,構詞能力強。

昆,引申為後代,用作語素。

嗣,有繼承權位的後代,作語素。

繼,偶作名詞,指繼承了王位或王侯權位的後代。

胤,重在血統。

世,常作語素,指遠世子孫。

苗,比喻遠世子孫。

裔,遠世後代,一般作語素。

胄,帝王或貴族的後代。

Modern Chinese Criteria

子孫

子息

子嗣

兒孫

後代

後人

後嗣

後生

後昆

後裔

苗裔

裔冑

後胤

祚胤

遺族

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

  • A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages ( BUCK 1988) p. 2.57

  • Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien ( DOEDERLEIN 1840) p.

    DESCENDENT

    posteritas is the general prosaic word for descendents.

    progenies is an elevated word for one's descendents.

    proles refers to children as fruits destined, as a younger race, to exist with their parents.

    suboles refers to children as an after-growth destined to replace the elder generation.

  • 論衡同義詞研究 ( LUNHENG TONGYI 2004) p. 65

  • Lateinische Synonymik ( MENGE) p. 288

  • 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 ( HONG CHENGYU 2009) p. 70

  • Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung ( FRANKE 1989) p. 72A

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • NP(post-N) : 19
  • NP : 16
  • n : 15
  • n(post-N) : 8
  • npost-N : 7
  • nm : 3
  • n : 1
  • vadN : 1
  • n[post-N] : 1
  • NP{N1&N2} : 1
  • VP[adN] : 1
  • nadN : 1
  • vtoN : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 32
  • 韓非子 : 7
  • 說苑 : 6
  • 祖堂集 : 5
  • 孟子 : 4
  • 呂氏春秋 : 3
  • 毛詩 : 3
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 2
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 2
  • 論語 : 2
  • 公孫龍子 : 1
  • 漢書 : 1
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
  • 禮記 : 1
  • 管子 : 1
  • 戰國策 : 1
  • 荀子 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1

Words

子孫   zǐ sūn OC: sklɯʔ sluun MC: tsɨ suo̝n 17 Attributions
  • NP(post-N)pluralthe descendents; posterity
  • NP{N1&N2}nonreferentialoffspring; posterity
  • NP{PRED}be descendants
   hòu OC: ɡooʔ MC: ɦu 13 Attributions

The general current and common abstract term for offspring is hòu 後 (ant. xiān 先 "forbears").

  • npost-NN=humdescendant, offspring
  • n(post-N)offspring, later generations
子弟   zǐ dì OC: sklɯʔ liilʔ MC: tsɨ dei 8 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentialoffspring, the younger generation; junior members of the family; scion
  • NP{PRED}be a descendant
   niè OC: ŋred MC: ŋiɛt 5 Attributions

Shù 庶 and niè 孽 (ant. zhèng 正 "descendant in direct line") refer to offspring by other women than the main wife.

  • nirregular offspring, illegitimate child
  • nadNborn by a woman other than one's main wife 孽子
  • vtoNattitudinaltreat as irregular offspring
苗裔   miáo yì OC: mrew leds MC: miɛu jiɛi 4 Attributions
  • NPoffspring, descendant
嫡 / 適   dí OC: k-leeɡ MC: tek dí OC: k-leeɡ MC: tek 3 Attributions
  • ndirect descendent of the ducal house
  • vadNlegitimate by descent
   sūn OC: sluun MC: suo̝n 3 Attributions

Sūn 孫 refers to all descendants lower than the generation of children.

  • nson's son; grandson
後嗣   hòu sì OC: ɡooʔ sɢlɯs MC: ɦu zɨ 3 Attributions
  • NP(post-N)pluraldescendants
   zǐ OC: sklɯʔ MC: tsɨ 2 Attributions

Zǐ 子 refers to children of any sex. See CHILD

  • nmnon-humanoffspring (as of birds etc)
  • nhuman(human) offspring
   zhāo OC: kljew MC: tɕiɛu 2 Attributions
  • ndescendent whose ancestral tablet will be placed on the left in the ancestral temple
   mù OC: muɡ MC: muk 2 Attributions

descendent whose ancestral tablet will be placed on the right in the ancestral temple

  • ndescendent whose ancestral tablet will be placed on the right in the ancestral temple
   yè MC: yep OC: leb 2 Attributions
  • nmoffspring; descendants
   shù OC: qhljaɡs MC: ɕi̯ɤ 1 Attribution

Shù 庶 and niè 孽 (ant. zhèng 正 "descendant in direct line") refer to offspring by other women than the main wife.

  • nillegitimate offspring; offspring by companions other than the regular wife
   yìn OC: lins MC: jin 1 Attribution

Zhòu 冑 and yìn 胤 are general abstract terms for offspring.

  • ndescendent
   yì OC: leds MC: jiɛi 1 Attribution

Yì 裔 (ant. zǔ 祖 "ancestors"), a fairly rare word in pre-Buddhist texts, can refer to any offspring of a clan or occasionally a people.

  • noffspring
  • npost-Nlater descendents of
   lèi OC: ruds MC: li 1 Attribution
  • noffspring 後類
孫子   sūn zǐ OC: sluun sklɯʔ MC: suo̝n tsɨ 1 Attribution
  • NPnonreferentialrefers specifically to third generation descendents, but the word can also refer generally to descendants, as in SHI 文王孫子
後類   hòu lèi OC: ɡooʔ ruds MC: ɦu li 1 Attribution
  • NPnonreferentialoffspring, later generations
自出   zì chū OC: sblids khljud MC: dzi tɕhʷit 1 Attribution
  • VP[adN]N=humdescendant
裔冑   yì zhòu OC: leds rliwɡs MC: jiɛi ɖɨu 1 Attribution
  • NPdescendent
右公子   yòu gōng zǐ OC: ɢʷɯʔ klooŋ sklɯʔ MC: ɦɨu kuŋ tsɨ 1 Attribution
  • NPducal son of the right
   yú OC: la MC: ji̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • npost-Nsurviving descendants of N
   jī MC: tsek OC: skleeɡ 1 Attribution
  • n[post-N]pluralown desendents
   zhòu OC: rliwɡs MC: ɖɨu 0 Attributions

Zhòu 冑 and yìn 胤 are general abstract terms for offspring.

       xìng OC: seŋs MC: siɛŋ 0 Attributions
    • noffspring viewed as persons of the same surname
       zòng OC: dzoŋs MC: dzi̯oŋ 0 Attributions

    Zòng 從 (ant. dí 嫡 "direct heirs") refers to the younger generation members of the same clan who do not immediately inherit.

    • nmyounger generation members of the same clan
    子姓   zǐ xìng OC: sklɯʔ seŋs MC: tsɨ siɛŋ 0 Attributions

    Zǐ xìng 子姓 specifically refers to the sons and grandsons.

      子姪   zǐ zhí OC: sklɯʔ ɡ-liɡ MC: tsɨ ɖit 0 Attributions

      Zǐ zhí 子姪 is a general term for descendants.

        子系   zǐ xì OC: sklɯʔ ɡeeɡs MC: tsɨ ɦei 0 Attributions
        • NP{N1&N2}nonreferentialdescendents, offspring
        後人   hòu rén OC: ɡooʔ njin MC: ɦu ȵin 0 Attributions
        • NPpluraldescendants
           dài OC: lɯɯɡs MC: dəi 0 Attributions
        • NPpluraldescendants, later generations
        曾孫   zēng sūn OC: tsɯɯŋ sluun MC: tsəŋ suo̝n 0 Attributions
        • NP{N1&N2}nonreferentialrefers specifically to fourth generation descendents of the grandchildren
        玄孫   xuán sūn OC: ɡʷeen sluun MC: ɦen suo̝n 0 Attributions
        • NPdistant offspring

        Existing SW for

        Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: