Taxonomy of meanings for 卻:

  • 卻 què (OC: khaɡ MC: kʰiɐk) 去約切 入 廣韻:【退也去約切四 】
    • WITHDRAW
      • viact(typically be forced to) retreat (usually not to the point of origin); back off
      • vtoNget (horses) to go backwards
      • vtoNcausativecause to withdraw
      • vtoNiussiveorder to withdraw
      • generalised>STOP
        • viacthalt, stop
        • vtoNcausativecause to stop
        • vttoN.+V[0]prevent N from V-ing (with obligatory cumulative negation, as common in French)
        • transitive>AVOID
            • grammaticalised>WEAK VERBAL SUFFIX
              • vpostadVdegreeresultative complement/complement of degree indicating that V has been performed to its full extant (often used after process verbs, indicating that a result of the process has been achieved)
              • vpostadVperfectiveperfective verbal complement
            • doing what one is asked to do>REFUSE
              • videcline; refuse; refuse to take orders
              • vt(oN)decline; refuse the contextually determinate object
              • vtoNrefuse off-hand
              • "refusing" to follow the pattern>NONETHELESS
                • vadV.postN{SUBJ}:postSin return; on the other hand
                • vadV.postSon the contrary, but, however, still, nevertheless, in return (frequently expressing that something happens contrary to what is expected)
                • grammaticalised: really>REALITY
                  • padVin actual fact, actually (contrary to expectations)
                  • graded>INTENSELY
                    • vadVcertainly; by all means; cf. modern Chinese dǎo 倒 "really" [mod CH]
                  • temporal>NOW
                    • epistemic>CERTAIN
                      • comparative>>THAN
                        • repetitive>>AGAIN
                  • causative>REMOVE
                    • vtoNremove
                    • abstract>DISCARD
                      • vtoNdismiss as useless
                • inchoative>TURN BACK
                    • resultative>RETURN
                      • vt+V[0]resume the activity of V, go back to V (closely related to the adversative meaning of 卻 and maybe difficult to distinguish from its function as adverb 'still, nevertheless'; however the meaning 'return' surfaces in compounds such as 卻歸)
                    • grammaticalised>BACKWARDS
                    • causative>FEND OFF
                        • and prevent intended movement>BLOCK
                          • vtoNcause to stop, block, hinder (with double negation, as in French)
                          • vttoN1.+prep+N2block N1 from N2; block access of N1 to N2
                    • late>WEAK VERBAL SUFFIX
                      • vpostadVdegreeresultative complement/complement of degree indicating that V has been performed to its full extant (often used after process verbs, indicating that a result of the process has been achieved)
                      • vpostadVperfectiveperfective verbal complement
                    • =xi4 郤隙HOLE
                      • ncrevice, hole, opening; gap
                  • 卻 jué (OC: kaɡ MC: kiɐk) 居勺切 入 廣韻:【節也又去約切 】