REFUSE  拒絕

DECIDE NOT TO ACT:do as one has been REQUESTED to ACT OR IS EXPECTED TO ACT.
ABSTAINDECLINETURN DOWNSAY NO TOREJECTSPURNREBUFFDISMISSSEND ONE'S REGRETS
Taxonoymy

INACTIVEUNGRATEFULOFFEND

Antonymy

AGREE TOACCEPT

Kind Of

DECIDE

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current general word for refusal to do what one is asked to do or invited to do is què 卻 (ant. yǔn 允 "agree gracefully", but only for the case when què 卻 has a subject of high status), verbalised refusal to do what one is invited to do is currently cí 辭 (ant. cóng 從 "follow, do as one is told").

2. Jù 拒 (ant. chéng 承 "accept (a task)") refers to emphatic refusal, a decision to have nothing to do with something.

3. Shì 釋 (ant. shòu 受 "accept (a task)") refers to an insistance not to do what one might be expected to undertake.

4. Fú 弗 (ant. yù 欲 "be willing to") regularly refers to what the agent "will not do" or "refuses to do", as an emphatic negation.

5. Chì 斥 (ant. fèng 奉 "accept (a task)") is occasionally used to refer to a refusal to accede to a request or demand.

Modern Chinese Criteria

拒絕 is the current modern word for refusal.

回絕 is a formal word for refusing or declining an offer.

推卻 refers to the refusal of an invitation.

推辭 refers to the declining of an invitation.

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 18.37

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 120

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.95

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 49B

ABLEHNUNG

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 56B

ABSCHLAGEN(VERWEIGERN)

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vt{NEG}+.Vt[0](oN) : 69
  • vtoN : 37
  • vt(+V[0]) : 24
  • vt(oN.)+V : 16
  • vt{NEG}+Vi[0] : 6
  • VPt(oN) : 4
  • vt+V[0] : 4
  • VPt+V[0] : 3
  • vt(oN) : 2
  • VPtoN : 2
  • vt{NEG}+Vtt[0](oN1.)(+N2) : 1
  • vt{NEG}.+VtoN : 1
  • vt{NEG}+Vtt[0](oN1.)+N2 : 1
  • VPi(adV) : 1
  • vi : 1
  • vt[oN] : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 91
  • 韓非子 : 20
  • 說苑 : 12
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 8
  • 戰國策 : 8
  • 孟子 : 6
  • 禮記 : 5
  • 論語 : 4
  • 百喻經 : 3
  • 荀子 : 2
  • 呂氏春秋 : 2
  • 論衡 : 2
  • 莊子 : 2
  • 史記 : 2
  • 文子 : 2
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 太平經 : 1
  • 晏子春秋 : 1
  • 鶡冠子 : 1

Words

   fú OC: pɯd MC: pi̯ut 78 Attributions

Fú 弗 (ant. yù 欲 "be willing to") regularly refers to what the agent "will not do" or "refuses to do", as an emphatic negation.

  • vi.red:adNrefusing> recalcitrant
  • vt{NEG}+.Vt[0](oN)would not; refuse to; decide not to (do what one might otherwise have done); will not; fail to
  • vt{NEG}+Vi[0]refuse to V
  • vt{NEG}.+VtoNrefuse to Vt the object N
  • vt{NEG}+Vtt[0](oN1.)(+N2)refuse to Vtt (e.g. give) N2 to N1
  • vt{NEG}+Vtt[0](oN1.)+N2refuse to
   cí OC: zɯ MC: zɨ 63 Attributions

The current general word for refusal to do what one is asked to do or invited to do is què 卻 (ant. yǔn 允 "agree gracefully", but only for the case when què 卻 has a subject of high status), verbalised refusal to do what one is invited to do is currently cí 辭 (ant. cóng 從 "follow, do as one is told").

  • vt(+V[0])decline the offer, decline the honour; refuse the request
  • vt(oN.)+Vrefuse a contextually determinate thing offered;, saying: decline thing offered, saying:
  • vtoNopt out; decline, decline to take; make excuses; decline to answer; decline (advice given); refuse (offer of an office)
  • vtoNpassiverefused
  • vt(oN)decline, decline to take
   què OC: khaɡ MC: khi̯ɐk 6 Attributions

The current general word for refusal to do what one is asked to do or invited to do is què 卻 (ant. yǔn 允 "agree gracefully", but only for the case when què 卻 has a subject of high status), verbalised refusal to do what one is invited to do is currently cí 辭 (ant. cóng 從 "follow, do as one is told").

  • videcline; refuse; refuse to take orders
  • vt(oN)decline; refuse the contextually determinate object
  • vtoNrefuse off-hand
不可   bù kě OC: pɯʔ khlaalʔ MC: pi̯ut khɑ 5 Attributions
  • vt(+V[0])refuse the contextually determinate proposal; refuse to do so; object
捨 / 舍   shě OC: lʰaʔ MC: ɕɣɛ shě OC: lʰaʔ MC: ɕɣɛ 3 Attributions
  • vt+V[0]refuse to V, give up V-ing
  • vtoNrefuse the offer of N
辭不受   cí bù shòu MC: zi pjut dzyuwX OC: zɯ pɯʔ djuʔ 3 Attributions
  • VPt(oN)hendiays: refuse to accept the N offered
   jù OC: ɡaʔ MC: gi̯ɤ 2 Attributions

Jù 拒 (ant. chéng 承 "accept (a task)") refers to emphatic refusal, a decision to have nothing to do with something.

  • vt[oN]refuse things (and not accept them)
  • vt+V[0]refuse to
  • vtoNoffer resistance to; refuse to accept; spurn, reject
不肯   bù kěn OC: pɯʔ khɯɯŋʔ MC: pi̯ut khəŋ 2 Attributions
  • VPt+V[0]be unwilling to > refuse to V
   chì OC: khljaɡ MC: tɕhiɛk 1 Attribution

Chì 斥 (ant. fèng 奉 "accept (a task)") is occasionally used to refer to a refusal to accede to a request or demand.

  • vtoNrefuse; repulse (a demand)
   xiè OC:  MC: zɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNobject=groundsrefuse politely on the grounds of N 謝病
   jù OC: ɡaʔ MC: gi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNpassivebe pushed aside, get opposed
   shì OC: lʰaɡ MC: ɕiɛk 1 Attribution

Shì 釋 (ant. shòu 受 "accept (a task)") refers to an insistance not to do what one might be expected to undertake.

  • vt+V[0]insist not to
不欲   bù yù OC: pɯʔ k-loɡ MC: pi̯ut ji̯ok 1 Attribution
  • VPt+V[0]litotes: be unwilling to; be disinclined to
  • VPt(+V[0])litotes: be unwilling to perform the contextually determinate act V
斷絕   duàn jué OC: doonʔ dzod MC: dʷɑn dziɛt 1 Attribution
  • vtoNabstain from
無受   wú shòu OC: ma djuʔ MC: mi̯o dʑɨu 1 Attribution
  • VPt(oN)refuse the contextually determinate object
稱疾   chēng jí OC: thjɯŋ dzid MC: tɕhɨŋ dzit 1 Attribution
  • VPi(adV)[refuse] pleading illness
距逆   jù nì OC: ɡaʔ ŋɡlaɡ MC: gi̯ɤ ŋɣɛk 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNpassivebe refused
辭以   cí yǐ OC: zɯ k-lɯʔ MC: zɨ jɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNdecline (an offer) in favour of the alternative recipient N
   ràng 1 Attribution
  • vtoNpolitely refuse
   duàn OC: doonʔ MC: dʷɑn 0 Attributions
  • vtoNabstain with regard to; abstain from
   zhī OC: kje MC: tɕiɛ 0 Attributions
  • viactresist; fight back
勿許   wù xǔ OC: mɯd hŋaʔ MC: mi̯ut hi̯ɤ 0 Attributions
  • VPt(oN)refuse the thing N requested
無心   wú xīn OC: ma slɯm MC: mi̯o sim 0 Attributions
  • VPt+V[0]have no mind to, not be inclined to, show no desire to
   jué OC: dzod MC: dziɛt 0 Attributions
  • vt(oN)refuse (to accept) 絕而不受 "refuse and not accept"

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: