ENTER  進入入/內

MOVE so as to BEGIN to BE-IN.
GO IN/INTOCOME IN/INTOGET IN/INTOSET FOOT INCROSS THE THRESHOLD OFGAIN ACCESS TOINFILTRATEACCESS
Taxonoymy

PENETRATE

Antonymy

LEAVE

See also

JOIN

Kind Of

MOVE

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The standard dominant word is rù 入 (ant. chū 出 "go out") which refers to any kind of concrete or abstract entering of a thing into another.

2. Nà 納 / 內 is causative and refers to letting enter or causing to enter.

3. Zhù 注 refers to causing liquids to enter a a container. [See also POUR]

4. Guàn 灌 refers to causing water to enter a location (prototypically for irrigation). [See POUR.]

NB: Jìn 進 "to enter" occurs only from JIN DYNASTY times onwards, as far as I have been able to see.

Modern Chinese Criteria

進入

進來

進去

參加

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 10.57

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

ENTER

intrare refers to concrete entering into a marked physical space, and it tends to function as a transitive verb.

introire "step into a marked space" is intansitive, but takes preposition-phrase objects.

ingredi refers to any entering into a marked or unmarked space.

inire refers almost invariably to a rigurative entering into an activity.

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 136

WANG WEIHUI 2000 東漢﹣隨常用詞演變研究 276

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 57

1. The point about ji4n 進 never meaning "to enter into" in any pre-Buddhist source is certainly right, but of course this point does not establish any synonymy relation for classical Chinese in pre-Buddhist times. The words have nothing to do with each other in our period.

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 323

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 61
  • vt(oN) : 28
  • vt+prep+N : 28
  • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2 : 4
  • vtoN : 3
  • VPi : 2
  • vttoN1.+N2 : 2
  • vt0oN.postadVt : 2
  • vt[oN] : 1
  • vt(oN.)-V : 1
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2 : 1
  • vttoN.+V[0] : 1
  • vtt(oN1.)+N2 : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 34
  • 韓非子 : 15
  • 論語 : 11
  • 祖堂集 : 10
  • 莊子 : 6
  • 笑林一卷 : 5
  • 韓詩外傳 : 5
  • 賢愚經 : 5
  • 百喻經 : 5
  • 禮記 : 4
  • 荀子 : 4
  • 晏子春秋 : 4
  • 說苑 : 4
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 4
  • 論衡 : 3
  • 史記 : 3
  • 孟子 : 2
  • 楚辭 : 2
  • 六祖壇經 : 2
  • 墨子 : 1
  • 記纂淵海 : 1
  • 呂氏春秋 : 1
  • 管子 : 1
  • 臨濟錄 : 1
  • 戰國策 : 1
  • 文子 : 1

Words

入 / 內   rù OC: njub MC: ȵip nèi OC: nuubs MC: nuo̝i 96 Attributions

The standard dominant word is rù 入(ant. chū 出 "go out") which refers to any kind of concrete or abstract entering of a thing into another. (CHECK!!) The standard dominant word is rù 入(ant. chū 出 "go out") which refers to any kind of concrete or abstract entering of a thing into another. (CHECK!!)

  • vtoNof persons: go in, enter; join; enter through; of things: enter (also: 入山) [SEPARATE OFF THE FIGURATIVE USAGES AMONG THE EXAMPLES. CH]
  • vttoN1.+N2causativecause (someone N1) to enter (a place N2)
  • vtoNobject=openingenter through 入門
  • vttoN.+V[0]to enter (a contextually defined place) in order to do something
  • vt+prep+Nenter (as ruler); enter as a visitor; enter into (so as to take control of or so as to get stuck in, or so as to find refuge in); enter through
  • vtoNfigurativeenter or join an abstract body/state or association
  • vtoNmathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
  • vtt(oN1.)+N2cause someone or something contextually determinate N1 to enter (a place N2)
  • vt(oN)enter the contextually determinate place (typically the capital) [Note that it seems the omission of the resumptive pronominal object is idiomatic. But it is not obligatory as the fair number of 入之 shows.]
  • vt+prep+Nfigurativeenter or join an abstract body/state or association
  • vtoNtravelgo to so as to enter
  • vt0oN.postadVtdirectionverbal complement: V into N
  • vtoN.-V[0]enter N in order to V
  • vt(oN.)-Vgo in to V
  • vadNOBI: going in> settling (as of sun)
  • vt[oN]enter a place, enter any place
  • vtoNconativetry to enter
  • vtoNpassivebe impossible to enter
  • vtoNcausativecause to enter> bring into, take into
納 / 內   nà OC: nuub MC: nəp nèi OC: nuubs MC: nuo̝i 15 Attributions

Nà 納/內 is causative and refers to letting enter or causing to enter. Nà 納/內 is causative and refers to letting enter or causing to enter.

  • vtoNpermissiveread nà: allow to enter, let in
  • vtoNcausativebe caused/allowed to enter
  • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2causativecause to enter into> conduct into;
   fù OC: phoɡs MC: phi̯o 11 Attributions
  • vtoNdive into, throw oneself into; sink into
   róng OC: k-loŋ MC: ji̯oŋ 3 Attributions
  • vt+prep+Npassivebe accommodated in; find space enough in
  • vtoNhave enough space to enter
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2have enough space to accommodate N1 in N2 不容身於天下
深 / 深   shèn OC: qhljums MC: ɕim shēn OC: qhljum MC: ɕim 3 Attributions
  • vtoNenter deep (into territory)
  • vt(oN)enter deep into the contextually determinate place
  • vtoNcausativecause (someone) to enter deep into a territory
   shè OC: djeb MC: dʑiɛp 2 Attributions
  • vtoNget into (e.g. rats getting into rice)
   xí OC: zɯb MC: zip 1 Attribution
  • vtoNenter in an invasive way
   jìn OC: tsins MC: tsin 1 Attribution

NB: Jìn 進 "to enter" occurs only from JIN DYNASTY times onwards, as far as I have been able to see.

  • vtoNpost-Han???: enter
  • vt(oN)enter the contextually determinate place
鑽 / 鑽   zuàn OC: tsoons MC: tsʷɑn zuān OC: tsoon MC: tsʷɑn 1 Attribution
  • vtoNburrow one's way into, drill one's way into
上堂   shàng táng OC: ɡljaŋʔ daaŋ MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ dɑŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPiactenter the hall; specifically: enter the Buddhist Lecture hall (DCD 1.285)
入內   rù nèi OC: njub nuubs MC: ȵip nuo̝i 1 Attribution
  • VPiactgo inside
   dé OC: tɯɯɡ MC: tək 0 Attributions
       zhù OC: tjos MC: tɕi̯o 0 Attributions

    Zhù 注 refers to causing liquids to enter a a container. [See also POUR]

    • vtoNpour liquid into
       guàn OC: koons MC: kʷɑn 0 Attributions

    Guàn 灌 refers to causing water to enter a location (prototypically for irrigation). [See POUR.]

    • vtoNenter (typically water) into a container, pour into
    穿   chuān OC: khjon MC: tɕhiɛn 0 Attributions
         kuò MC: kwat OC: kood 0 Attributions
      • vtoNenter

      Existing SW for

      Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: