Taxonomy of meanings for 向:

  • 向 xiàng (OC: qhaŋs MC: hiɐŋ) 許亮切 去 廣韻:【對也䆫也説文曰北出牖也从宀口詩云塞向墐戸許亮切八 】
    • ADDRESS
      • vtoN.adVcoverb introducing the recipient of a speech act: address somebody (and say); addressing oneself to N
    • DIRECTION
      • vt[0]oN.postadVdirectional preposition: to V towards N
      • vtoN.adVtowards, to
      • vtoN.adVfigurative(with abstract objects): (turn one's attention) towards
      • vtoN.adVreflexive.自facing (oneself)
      • vtoNdirect oneself towards > focus on; pay attention to
      • nabpsychhave direction, orientation
    • exocentric: window facing north>WINDOW
      • nsmall window in the wall facing north
    • GO TO
      • vtoNturn to > go to
      • NEAR
        • vtoNcome close to
        • just now>NOW
            • recent>PAST
              • nadSSnot long ago
              • nadNpast; just now (as in "the man just now")
              • nadNfigurativeearlier-mentioned, above-mentioned
              • vadSformerly, earlier
              • vadVformerly
              • in the past, continuously>ALWAYS
          • MEET
            • vtoNto face (an enemy); to confront (an army)
          • BE IN
            • vtoN.adVlocative coverb: in, at, on (this is a special usage of 向 in vernacular texts of the Tang and Song periods; there are only few examples dating from the Six Dynasties period but this function became quite common during the Tang; during the Ming locative xiàng gradually became obsolete) In Song texts typically appearing in the construction 向 N 中 "in N"
            • and from there>FROM
          • social>RALLY
            • vtoNturn to someone as a supporter, rally to; become a follower of
            • psychological>LIKE
                • spiritual>ASPIRATION
                  • vtoNhave as one's aim.
          • grammaticalised: when it came to>WHEN
              • conditional>IF
              • STATES
                • NPprXiàng 向 (CHEN PAN 1969, 350-356)
            • 向 shàng (OC: qhjaŋs MC: ɕiɐŋ) 式亮切 去 廣韻:【人姓岀河内本自有殷宋文公支子向文旰旰孫戍以王父字爲氏又許亮切 】