DIRECTION  方向

RELATION to OTHER PLACES.
DIMENSION
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The general term for direction as defining a part of space is fāng 方.

2. Xiāng 鄉 refers to a direction as seen from a subject.

3. Dōng 東 "east", nán 南 "south", xī 西 "west", běi 北 are the major directions.

4. Yáng 陽 refers to the area north of a river and south of a mountain.

5. Yīn 陰 refers to the area south of a river and north of a mountain.

Modern Chinese Criteria

方向

方位

方面

動向

走向

去向

流向

航向

風向

潮向

山向 refers to the direction a tomb faces.

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

WU SANXING 2008 中國文化背景八千詞 Zhongguo wenhua beijing ba qian ci 378ff

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • n{PLACE}adV : 32
  • vtoN : 20
  • vi : 19
  • NPadV : 18
  • nadN : 17
  • vadN : 14
  • n : 11
  • vi.post-V : 10
  • vadV : 7
  • NP : 7
  • vtoN.adV : 6
  • nadV : 4
  • npost-N : 3
  • vt[0]oN.postadV : 3
  • NPadS : 2
  • n(post-N.)adV : 2
  • nab : 2
  • n[post-N] : 1
  • n{OBJ}+Vt : 1
  • NPab : 1
  • NP[adN] : 1
  • VPpostadV : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 29
  • 禮記 : 27
  • 說苑 : 23
  • 春秋左傳 : 16
  • 祖堂集 : 14
  • 孟子 : 10
  • 論語 : 8
  • 荀子 : 6
  • 管子 : 6
  • 莊子 : 6
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 5
  • 穆天子傳 : 4
  • 鹽鐵論 : 3
  • 臨濟錄 : 3
  • 戰國策 : 3
  • 山海經 : 2
  • 尚書 : 2
  • 呂氏春秋 : 2
  • 毛詩 : 2
  • 六祖壇經 : 2
  • 列子 : 1
  • 天中記 : 1
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 百喻經 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 黃帝內經 : 1
  • 史記 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1

Words

西   xī OC: sqɯɯl MC: sei 23 Attributions
  • n{PLACE}adVtowards the west; on the western side, in the western part
  • nplacewest
  • nadNwestern
  • nadVfromfrom the west
  • vigo westwards
  • n[post-N.]adVto the west of one
  • nadNtowards the direction of the west
   dōng OC: tooŋ MC: tuŋ 22 Attributions

Dōng 東 "east", nán 南 "south", xī 西 "west", běi 北 are the major directions.

  • n{PLACE}adVon the eastern side, in the eastern part of something; in the east [can perhaps also be taken as a nominal topic in many cases]
  • n{PLACE}adVdirectionto the east, eastern
  • nplaceeast
  • nadNeastern
  • npost-Nplacethe eastern part or side of something, to the east of something
  • viinchoativemove towards the east
  • vtoNturn (one's head) towards the east)
  • vtoNiussiveorder to go to the east
  • n[post-N]to the east of one
  • n(post-N.)adV
  • nadNtowards the the direction of the east
   zuǒ OC: skaalʔ MC: tsɑ 19 Attributions
  • nthe left side
  • vadNleft
  • vadVwith the left hand; on the left side
  • vadVtowards lefttowards the left
  • viactsteer left; turn left; keep to the left
  • vtoNcausativeput on the left; place on the left-hand side
  • npost-Nthe left hand side of N
  • vtoNhave on one's left-hand side, as an advisor
   yòu OC: ɢʷɯʔ MC: ɦɨu 17 Attributions
  • npost-Nto the right of N
  • vadNright
  • vadV(occasionally) with one's right hand
  • viactsteer towards the right, move towards the right
  • vtoNcausativeput on the right
  • npost-Nthe right side of N
  • vtoNhave on one's right-hand side, as an advisor
  • vadVtowards the right
   nán OC: noom MC: nəm 16 Attributions
  • n{OBJ}+Vtthe north
  • n{PLACE}adVin the south; towards the south; from the south
  • nplacesouth
  • nadNsouthern 南方
  • viactmove southwards
   xiāng OC: qhaŋ MC: hi̯ɐŋ 16 Attributions

Xiāng 鄉 refers to a direction as seen from a subject.

  • nabplacedirection
  • viactface in the direction of; go in the direction of (the direction is placed in adverbial position)
  • vtoNface in the direction of
  • vtoN.adVfacing in the direction N to V
東西南北   dōng xī nán běi OC: tooŋ sqɯɯl noom pɯɯɡ MC: tuŋ sei nəm pək 15 Attributions
  • NPadVthe directions; in all directions
   běi OC: pɯɯɡ MC: pək 10 Attributions
  • n{PLACE}adVin the north; from the north; towards the north, northwards 北面
  • nplacenorth
  • nadNnorthern
  • viactmove northwards
   xiàng OC: qhaŋs MC: hi̯ɐŋ 7 Attributions
  • vt[0]oN.postadVdirectional preposition: to V towards N
  • vtoN.adVtowards, to
  • vtoN.adVfigurative(with abstract objects): (turn one's attention) towards
  • vtoN.adVreflexive.自facing (oneself)
  • vtoNdirect oneself towards > focus on; pay attention to
  • nabpsychhave direction, orientation
   miàn MC: mjienH OC: mens 7 Attributions
  • vi.post-Vface in the direction indicated by V
   yáng OC: k-laŋ MC: ji̯ɐŋ 6 Attributions

Yáng 陽 refers to the area north of a river and south of a mountain.

  • nplacenorth; north of a river; south of a mountain
  • nadN(the state of Wèi) in the south
   yīn OC: qrɯm MC: ʔim 5 Attributions

Yīn 陰 refers to the area south of a river and north of a mountain.

  • nplacesouth; south of a river, north of a mountain, north of a city wall
  • nadN(the state of Yān) which is in the north
南方   nán fāng OC: noom paŋ MC: nəm pi̯ɐŋ 4 Attributions
  • NP[adN]one from the south > Southener, person of southern origin
  • NPadSin the South
  • NPadVin the south
西南   xī nán OC: sqɯɯl noom MC: sei nəm 4 Attributions
  • NPsouth-west
西北   xī běi OC: sqɯɯl pɯɯɡ MC: sei pək 3 Attributions
  • NPnorth-west
  • NPadVto the north-west, in the direction of north-west
   fāng OC: paŋ MC: pi̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions

The general term for direction as a part of space is fāng 方.

  • ndirection
   duì OC: k-luubs MC: tuo̝i 1 Attribution
  • vtoN.adVfacing towards > face to face with
  • vtoNmathematical termCHEMLA 2003: face in a direction
   dāng OC: taaŋ MC: tɑŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNface towards
下來   xià lái OC: ɢraas m-rɯɯ MC: ɦɣɛ ləi 1 Attribution
  • VPpostadVdirectioncomplex verbal complement indicating a downwards movement which at the same time is directed towards the speaker 跳下來 come jumping down (towards the speaker)
八達   bā dá OC: preed daad MC: pɣɛt dɑt 1 Attribution
  • NPabspaceall directions (see also 八方 "the eight directions")
東南   dōng nán OC: tooŋ noom MC: tuŋ nəm 1 Attribution
  • NPsouth-east
  • NPadVin a south-easterly direction
西方   xī fāng MC: sej pjang OC: sqɯɯl paŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPadSin the West
   shuò OC: sqrooɡ MC: ʂɣɔk 0 Attributions
  • npost-N{PLACE}north of Npl
   biǎo OC: prawʔ MC: piɛu 0 Attributions
  • nccdirection 八表
扶桑   fū sāng OC: pa saaŋ MC: pi̯o sɑŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPprplacethe Far East where the sun rises
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vi.post-Vface in the direction indicated by V

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: