Taxonomy of meanings for 語:

  • yǔ (OC: ŋaʔ MC: ŋiɔ) 魚巨切 上 廣韻:【説文論也魚巨切十二 】
  • yù (OC: ŋas MC: ŋiɔ) 牛倨切 去 廣韻:【説也告也又魚巨切 】
    • SPEAK
      • nabacttalk; (often negative:) chatter
      • nabtextwhat is said > discourse (this can refer to spoken word and the written word); message
      • nadVverbally; by use of words/speech
      • viactengage in a dialogue; talk along, chatter
      • vt[oN]say something
      • vt+Vt.oSsay that 語曰
      • vtoN.+VtoStell N: S 語x曰:
      • vtoN.+VtoSN=nonhutell N, saying
      • vtoNnegativetalk loosely about (pejorative); speak informally in favour of
      • vtoNtalk about
      • vtoNN=audiencespeak to
      • vtoNN=topicspeak of N
      • vtoSspeak of the fact that S
      • vttoN.+Stell N S
      • abstract>LANGUAGE
        • nab.post-Nlanguage of N
        • nabpsychlanguage (see 梵語 "Sanskrit")
        • nabnon-humanlanguage of birds (thus this corresponds to French langage and not to French langue, which is limited to human language, like Chinese 言)
        • specifically physical>PRONUNCIATION
          • nablinguisticYANSHIJIAXUN: pronunciation (NB: never used verbally, apparently!)
        • synecdoche>WORD
          • nword 一語
          • recurrent complex>PROVERB
            • nabtextproverb; sometimes also attributed to a place 宋人語曰
          • complex>STORY
            • nablinguistictale, anecdote, story
      • transitive>ADDRESS
        • vt(oN.)+Vtell the contextually determinate N that S
        • vttoN.+VtoSreport to; let somebody know; post-Han sometimes: tell someone to carry out the instruction in the speech 語人曰
        • ditransitive>REPORT
          • vtoNreport to; notify (someone), let someone know
          • vtt(oN1.)+N2tell something determinate N1 to (a person N2)
          • vttoN1.+N2tell addresse N1 about subject N2 語之故 "tell him the reason"
          • vttoN1(.+N2)omtell (someone N1) about a contextually determinate matter N2
          • vttoN1+.vtoN2to tell (somebody), that...(indirect speech introduced by 以)
          • vttoN1.postvt(oN2{OBJ})report
          • vttoN.+Stell N that S
          • abstract, by non-linguistic means>COMMUNICATE
              目語
            • multiple>DIALOGUE
              • nmtalk; utterances (often derogatory)
              • viactconverse; engage in conversation
              • vt(oN)engage in dialogue with someone contextually determinate
              • vtoNtalk with, engage in conversation with 相語, 與x共語
              • vtoNpassivebe conversed with
              • vtpost-.VtoNengage in a dialogue with N
              • vttoN1:postvtoN2talk to
              • vttoN1.+N2talk (to someone N1) about (something N2) in conversation
      • specific>WARN
        • vtoNmake a warning report to