ENDURING  長久

BIG in respect of the PERIOD something EXISTS, HAPPENS, OR is being ACTED:done.
CONSTANT LASTINGLONG-LASTINGABIDINGDURABLECONTINUINGPERSISTINGETERNALPERENNIALPERMANENTUNENDINGEVERLASTINGCONSTANTSTABLESTEADYSTEADFASTFIXEDFIRMUNWAVERINGUNFALTERINGUNCHANGING
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The general word for something which is constant and lasting in time is jiǔ 久 (ant. qǐng 頃 "for a short time"), which can refer to bounded or unbounded and open-ended persistence in time.

2. Cháng 長 (ant. duǎn 短 "of short duration") expresses bounded enduringness with a definite final point being typically imagined, although in cháng shēng 長生 the word refers to an unending long life.

3. Cháng 常 and the especially emphatic héng 恆 "highly constant and permanent" (ant.* ǒu 偶 "contingency and consequent changeability") emphasise the constancy or constant recurrence of the attributes of what is lasting, and typically - though not always - the constancy is valued positively.

4. Bì 必 refers to something being an invariable event that always tends to occur.

5. Shí 時 "recurrently, constantly" allows for something being present or having certain attributes intermittently but over a long stretch of time.

6. Yóng 永 "last for a while" (ant. zàn 暫 "temporary" post-Buddhist, Six Dynasties: temporarily) is an elevated and poetic word often referring to subjectively experienced long duration.

Modern Chinese Criteria

長久

久長

悠久

許久

好久 is an emphatic and sometimes emotional way of saying "for a long time": 好久不見.

半天 is an irritated way of referring to something lasting for a long time: 我等了半天

久久

經久

良久

多時

有日子

綿長

綿綿

漫長

漫漫

久遠

長遠

遙遠

悠遠

長期

久而久之

長此以往

曠日持久

遙遙無期

多歷年所

天荒地老

地老天荒

天長日久

日久天長

天長地久

地久天長

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 516©

...

Modus durationis est

1. Tempus, principium medium finem, habens

2. Aevum seu perpetuitas, principium et successionem sed sine fine habens.

3. Aeternitas principio, medio et fine carens.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

ENDURING

continuus is what hangs together in time without break or interruption.

perpetuum is what has continuous duration and lasts to its natural end without breaking off before.

sempiternum is what is everlasting, following along with the changing times.

aeternus is what lasts out all time and is vaguely perceived to reach larger aeons beyond earthly time.

LASTING

diuturnus refers to a long duration indifferently.

diutinus refers negatively to something being protracted and wearisome.

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 73

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 347

HUANG XIAODONG 2003 “荀子”單音節形容詞同義關係研究 157

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 343

MENGZI TONGYI 2002 “孟子”同義詞研究 263

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 2.838

EWIGKEIT

SCHMIDT 1889 Handbuch der lateinischen und griechischen Synonymik 93

WANG TONGWEI 2010 "三國志"同義詞及其歷史演變 507-517

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 10

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 2.194:130

FERMETE.CONSTANCE

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.94.69

DURABLE.CONSTANT

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vadV : 151
  • vadN : 47
  • nadV : 43
  • vi : 40
  • VPadV : 35
  • VP0adS : 30
  • NPadV : 21
  • VPpostadV : 20
  • VPi : 19
  • vpostadV : 18
  • VPi0postadV : 18
  • VPt+V[0] : 17
  • VPi0adV : 16
  • nab : 11
  • VPadN : 9
  • VPadv : 8
  • nadV{NEG} : 8
  • VP0postadV : 7
  • vtoN : 6
  • n.red:adV : 5
  • NPab : 5
  • nadN : 4
  • vi0adS : 3
  • padV : 3
  • VPi0adS : 2
  • PPadV : 1
  • vi-P.adS : 1
  • v[adN] : 1
  • NPpostadV : 1
  • vadV{NEG} : 1
  • VPtoN : 1
  • n : 1
  • vadNab : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 69
  • 春秋左傳 : 46
  • 史記 : 44
  • 百喻經 : 40
  • 論語 : 34
  • 荀子 : 30
  • 祖堂集 : 26
  • 賢愚經 : 22
  • 說苑 : 20
  • 呂氏春秋 : 17
  • 莊子 : 17
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 15
  • 戰國策 : 13
  • 法句經 : 13
  • 孟子 : 12
  • 論衡 : 11
  • 毛詩 : 9
  • 六祖壇經 : 9
  • 文子 : 9
  • 臨濟錄 : 8
  • 楚辭 : 8
  • 劉義慶世說新語 : 7
  • 韓詩外傳 : 7
  • 尚書 : 7
  • 太平經 : 6
  • 法集要頌經 : 6
  • 禮記 : 5
  • 管子 : 5
  • 法言 : 5
  • 老子 : 4
  • 孝經 : 4
  • 淮南子 : 4
  • 列子 : 3
  • 朱子語類 : 3
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 3
  • 公孫龍子 : 3
  • 晏子春秋 : 2
  • 周易 : 2
  • 記纂淵海 : 1
  • 山海經 : 1
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
  • 鹽鐵論 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • 尹文子 : 1

Words

   cháng OC: djaŋ MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ 82 Attributions

Cháng 常 and the especially emphatic héng 恆 "highly constant and permanent" (ant.* ǒu 偶 "contingency and consequent changeability") emphasise the constancy or constant recurrence of the attributes of what is lasting, and typically - though not always - the constancy is valued positively.

  • nsubj=nonhumanthat which is permanent
  • nabconceptpermanence
  • nabsubjectwhat is constant; constant principle
  • vadNinvariant; constant; permanent, enduring, ever-lasting
  • vadVregularly; invariably; in perpetuity; permanently, constantly
  • vadVadverb-raisingpermanently
  • vibe permanentBUDDH: abbr. for chángzhù 常住; SANSKRIT nitya-sthita
  • vtoNkeep constant
   jiǔ OC: klɯʔ MC: kɨu 73 Attributions

The general word for something which is constant and lasting in time is jiǔ 久 (ant. qǐng 頃 "for a short time"), which can refer to bounded or unbounded and open-ended persistence in time.

  • nabconceptlength of time
  • nabfeaturelongevity
  • nabtimelong time
  • vadNlong-lasting
  • vadVfor a long time; permanently; in the long run (often postposed); after a long time; in the long term
  • vadVgradedany longer
  • vi-P.adSbe long-lasting
  • vi.red:adVfor a long time; forever
  • vilast long; be in a state for a long time; persevere; last long; be long-term
  • vi0adS(After) a long time passes/passed
  • vpostadVfor a long time 甚久
  • vtoNcausativebe made to last long
  • vtoNputativeconsider as a long period of time; consider something too protracted
   cháng OC: ɡrlaŋ MC: ɖi̯ɐŋ 49 Attributions

Cháng 長 (ant. duǎn 短 "of short duration") expresses bounded enduringness with a definite final point being typically imagined, although in cháng shēng 長生 the word refers to an unending long life.

  • v[adN]what is long-lasting
  • vadNlasting, enduring; long-term; long
  • vadVfor a long time, for any length of time; forever; in the long run
  • vieternalbe everlasting
  • vitemporallast long; be lasting, be enduring; be long-term
  • vtoNcausativebe made to last long
  • vtoNcausativepassive: be made to last longer
  • vihappen after a long(er) time
  • vadVin/from a long-term perspective
   rì OC: mljiɡ MC: ȵit 45 Attributions
  • n.red:adVevery day, daily
  • nadVtimedaily, every day; day in and day out; progressively generally: all the time
  • nadVincreasingly, day by day
良久   liáng jiǔ OC: ɡ-raŋ klɯʔ MC: li̯ɐŋ kɨu 44 Attributions
  • NPabtimelong period of time
  • VP0adSafter a long time 良久乃
  • VPiit took a long time
  • VPi0adVafter a long time, for a long time
  • VPi0postadVfor a long time [or: VPi.postS, but this seems artificial, though logically possible.]
   yǒng OC: ɢʷaŋʔ MC: ɦɣaŋ 34 Attributions

Yóng 永"last for a while" (ant. zàn 暫 "temporary" post-Buddhist, Six Dynasties: temporarily) is an elevated and poetic word often referring to subjectively experienced long duration.

  • vadNlasting, long-lasting CC 永都 "lasting duty". [for a long time][CA]
  • vadV{NEG}absolutely (with negative)
  • vadVfor a fairly long time; all the time CC 永歎; forever
  • vadVforeverforever in the future (often involving the syntactic mechanism of adverb-raising, i.e. modifying a verb other than that it precedes) CHECK EXAMPLES AGAIN
  • vibe lasting
  • vtoNcausativecause to be enduring> prolong ??
久之   jiǔ zhī OC: klɯʔ kljɯ MC: kɨu tɕɨ 31 Attributions
  • VP0adSafter a long time; sometimes: for a long time
  • VP0postadVfor a long time
  • VPadVat the longest; at most
  • VPadVlastingfor a long time; in the long run
  • VPiactpersist for a long time
終身   zhōng shēn OC: tjuŋ qhjin MC: tɕuŋ ɕin 24 Attributions
  • VPadNdesigned for one's whole life, for a lifetime
  • VPadVthe whole life; always
  • VPtoNbe committed to one's whole life, spend one's whole life with
  • VPpostadVall one's life, throughout one's life
  • VPadNlasting a lifetime
   bì OC: piɡ MC: pit 21 Attributions

Bì 必 refers to something being an invariable event that always tends to occur.

  • vadValways; invariably
未嘗不   wèi cháng bù OC: mɯds djaŋ pɯʔ MC: mɨi dʑi̯ɐŋ pi̯ut 17 Attributions
  • VPt+V[0]always; would always; never fail to
朝夕   zhāo xī OC: taw sɢlaɡ MC: ʈiɛu ziɛk 10 Attributions
  • NPadVat short intervals, all the time; day and night
  • NPpostadVall the time, from morning to night
   zhōng OC: tjuŋ MC: tɕuŋ 9 Attributions
  • nadV{NEG}until the end, forever; until the end of one's life
  • vilast to the end of one's life
不已   bù yǐ OC: pɯʔ k-lɯʔ MC: pi̯ut jɨ 7 Attributions
  • VPpostadVceaselessly
日夜   rì yè OC: mljiɡ k-laɡs MC: ȵit jɣɛ 6 Attributions
  • NPadVday and night, all the time, all one's time
長久   cháng jiǔ OC: ɡrlaŋ klɯʔ MC: ɖi̯ɐŋ kɨu 6 Attributions
  • NPabfeaturelongevity
  • VPibe enduring or everlasting
  • VPibe long-lived
   shí OC: ɡljɯ MC: dʑɨ 5 Attributions

Shí 時 "recurrently, constantly" allows for something being present or having certain attributes intermittently but over a long stretch of time.

  • n.red:adVfrom time to time, regularly
  • nadVtimealways, regularly; all the time, constantly, time and again
  • vadNabconstant
  • vtoNcausativemake timely and enduring
無窮   wú qióng OC: ma ɡʷɯŋ MC: mi̯o guŋ 5 Attributions
  • VPpostadVboundlessly, everlastingly, forever
  • VPadNunending
   shì OC: lʰebs MC: ɕiɛi 4 Attributions
  • nadNenduring over generations; eternal; hereditary
不朽   bù xiǔ OC: pɯʔ qhuʔ MC: pi̯ut hɨu 4 Attributions
  • VPibe everlasting; continue and not be forgotten; be "immortal"
   yí OC: li MC: ji 3 Attributions
  • vadNarchaic: unvarying, permanent
  • vadVarchai: constantly
總 / 總摠   zǒng OC: skooŋʔ MC: tsuŋ  OC:  MC:  3 Attributions
  • vadVconstantly; continuously; always
   sù OC: saas MC: suo̝ 3 Attributions
  • vadVfor a long time; as always
   shòu MC: dzyuwH OC: -- 3 Attributions
  • vibe long-lived
  • nablonglivedness
   zhù OC: tos MC: ʈi̯o 2 Attributions
  • nabfeaturepermance
  • vtoNlast (for such-and-such a time)
宿   sù OC: suɡ MC: suk 2 Attributions
  • vadNHANSHU: for a long time; from the start (cf. sù 素 "from the start")
  • vilast long
   měi OC: mɯɯʔ MC: muo̝i 2 Attributions
  • padVSHI: constantly; at all times SHI: 每懷
不易   bù yì OC: pɯʔ leeɡs MC: pi̯ut jiɛ 2 Attributions
  • VPibe unwavering
  • VPadNunswerving, inalterable
不死   bù sǐ OC: pɯʔ pliʔ MC: pi̯ut si 2 Attributions
  • VPadNunending
不絕   bù jué OC: pɯʔ dzod MC: pi̯ut dziɛt 2 Attributions
  • VPpostadVincessantly, without interruption
始終   shǐ zhōng OC: lʰɯʔ tjuŋ MC: ɕɨ tɕuŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPadVV=negativefrom the beginning to the end (with negated V: never)
尋常   xún cháng OC: ljum djaŋ MC: zim dʑi̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions
  • VPadVusually; always
常住   cháng zhù OC: djaŋ dos MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ ɖi̯o 2 Attributions
  • NPabfeatureBUDDH: constant staying-in-one-place > permanence
  • VPadNBUDDH: permanently residing > permanentskr. nitya-sthita
  • VPiBUDDH: be permanently residing > be permanent (sometimes also used as description of nirvāṇa 涅槃 )skr. nitya / nitya-sthita, pali nicca
從來   cóng lái OC: dzoŋ m-rɯɯ MC: dzi̯oŋ ləi 2 Attributions
  • VPadVfrom the beginning > always, at all times, all along
悠久   yōu jiǔ OC: k-lɯw klɯʔ MC: jɨu kɨu 2 Attributions
  • VPiintensitivebe very long-lasting
日久   rì jiǔ OC: mljiɡ klɯʔ MC: ȵit kɨu 2 Attributions
  • VPibe long-lasting
  • VPpostadVfor many days
每常   měi cháng OC: mɯɯʔ djaŋ MC: muo̝i dʑi̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions
  • VPadVever time, always, regularly
沒世   mò shì OC: mɯɯd lʰebs MC: muot ɕiɛi 2 Attributions
  • VPadVto the end of one's generation> all one's life
經久   jīng jiǔ OC: keeŋ klɯʔ MC: keŋ kɨu 2 Attributions
  • VPadVfor a long time; during a long period of time
  • VPpostadVfor a long period of time
居有頃   jū yǒu qǐng OC: ka ɢʷɯʔ khʷleŋʔ MC: ki̯ɤ ɦɨu khiɛŋ 2 Attributions
  • VPi0adSafter a (not too long) while
窮年   qióng nián MC: gjuwng nen OC: ɡʷɯŋ niin 2 Attributions
  • VPadvto the end of one's days
積久   jī jiǔ MC: tsjeH kjuwX OC: skleɡ klɯʔ 2 Attributions
  • VPpostadVcontinuously and cumulatively, for a long time
   yī OC: qliɡ MC: ʔit 1 Attribution
  • vadVone and for all; once and for all time
   píng OC: breŋ MC: bɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • vadNongoing; enduring (see 平常); the complete time of
    OC:  MC:  1 Attribution

DELENDUM

  • vadNpermanent, stable (often used for 常 for taboo reasons)
   yōu OC: k-lɯw MC: jɨu 1 Attribution

Yōu 悠 can refer to something being enduring from a long past.

  • vienduring into the past
   chéng OC: djeŋ MC: dʑiɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • vadNfixed and enduring
   shēng OC: sraaŋ MC: ʂɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • vadVall one's life
   jī OC: skhib MC: tship 1 Attribution
  • vadVenduringly; permanently; continuously
   dū OC: k-laa MC: tuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • padVforever
不停   bù tíng OC: pɯʔ deeŋ MC: pi̯ut deŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPpostadVincessantly
不生   bù shēng OC: pɯʔ sraaŋ MC: pi̯ut ʂɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: non-origination
  • VPadNBUDDH: non-originating (i.e. without beginning)
不變   bù biàn OC: pɯʔ prons MC: pi̯ut piɛn 1 Attribution
  • VPibe unchanging
久時   jiǔ shí OC: klɯʔ ɡljɯ MC: kɨu dʑɨ 1 Attribution
  • NPadVfor a long time
久長   jiǔ cháng OC: klɯʔ ɡrlaŋ MC: kɨu ɖi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPiintensitivebe very long-lasting
于時   yú shí OC: ɢʷra ɡljɯ MC: ɦi̯o dʑɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPadVarchaic/poetic: permanently, forever
來久   lái jiǔ OC: m-rɯɯ klɯʔ MC: ləi kɨu 1 Attribution
  • VPpostadVfor quite a long time
可久   kě jiǔ OC: khlaalʔ klɯʔ MC: khɑ kɨu 1 Attribution
  • NPabfeaturethe capacity to be made enduring
常恆   cháng héng OC: djaŋ ɡɯɯŋ MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ ɦəŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPiconstant (and unchanging)
幾何   jǐ hé OC: kɯlʔ ɡlaal MC: kɨi ɦɑ 1 Attribution
  • PPadVquestionhow long?
曠劫   kuàng jié OC: khʷaaŋs kab MC: khɑŋ ki̯ɐp 1 Attribution
  • NPadVfor kalpas on end
每恆   měi héng OC: mɯɯʔ ɡɯɯŋ MC: muo̝i ɦəŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPadVtime and again
每日   měi rì OC: mɯɯʔ mljiɡ MC: muo̝i ȵit 1 Attribution
  • NPadVeveryday
終常   zhōng cháng OC: tjuŋ djaŋ MC: tɕuŋ dʑi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPadVto the very end
連時   lián shí OC: b-ren ɡljɯ MC: liɛn dʑɨ 1 Attribution
  • NPadVfor quite some time
長遠   cháng yuǎn OC: ɡrlaŋ ɢʷanʔ MC: ɖi̯ɐŋ ɦi̯ɐn 1 Attribution
  • VPibe lasting; be everlasting
隨時   suí shí OC: sɢlol ɡljɯ MC: ziɛ dʑɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPadVconstantly, all the time
久而後   jiǔ ér hòu OC: klɯʔ njɯ ɡooʔ MC: kɨu ȵɨ ɦu 1 Attribution
  • VPadVonly after a long period of time
從昔來   cóng xī lái OC: dzoŋ sqaɡ m-rɯɯ MC: dzi̯oŋ siɛk ləi 1 Attribution
  • VPadVfor a long time past
   yán MC: yen OC: lan 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcausativecause to be longer-lasting, lengthen
壽長   shòu cháng MC: dzyuwX drjang OC: djuʔ ɡrlaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPibe long-lived
累世   lěi shi4 MC: ljweH -- OC: rolʔ -- 1 Attribution
  • VPadVfor ages
   tiān OC: lʰiin MC: then 0 Attributions
  • n.red:adVevery day
不滅   bù miè OC: pɯʔ med MC: pi̯ut miɛt 0 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: non-extinction, non-cessation
世世   shì shì OC: lʰebs lʰebs MC: ɕiɛi ɕiɛi 0 Attributions
  • NPadVfor generation after generation
永世   yǒng shì OC: ɢʷaŋʔ lʰebs MC: ɦɣaŋ ɕiɛi 0 Attributions
  • NPadVfor all eternity; for eternal generations
沒身   mò shēn OC: mɯɯd qhjin MC: muot ɕin 0 Attributions
  • VPadVall one's life, to the end of one's days
積年   jī nián OC: skleɡ niin MC: tsiɛk nen 0 Attributions
  • NPpostadVfor several years on end
累日   lěi rì OC: rolʔ mljiɡ MC: liɛ ȵit 0 Attributions
  • NPadVfor days on end
  • NPpostadVfor days on end
終老   zhōng lǎo OC: tjuŋ ɡ-ruuʔ MC: tɕuŋ lɑu 0 Attributions
  • VPadVuntil I end up old; until I am old, until you are old, until one is old
非生   fēi shēng OC: pɯl sraaŋ MC: pɨi ʂɣaŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPsubjectthing that does not originate, non-originating things
無數劫   wú shù jié OC: ma sqros kab MC: mi̯o ʂi̯o ki̯ɐp 0 Attributions
  • NPpostadVfor uncountable aeons, for an infinite number of kalpas
連時來   lián shí lái OC: b-ren ɡljɯ m-rɯɯ MC: liɛn dʑɨ ləi 0 Attributions
  • VPadVfor a long time
   jīn OC: krɯm MC: kim 0 Attributions
  • nmadNfigurativeoccasionally figurative: lasting (like metal)
   wǎng OC: ɢʷaŋʔ MC: ɦi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
  • vadVover a long period: ever
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • VPadvto the end of one's days

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: