ARROGANT  驕傲

PROUD AND TENDING to SHOW DESPISE:contempt for OTHERS.
HAUGHTYCONCEITEDSELF-IMPORTANTEGOTISTICFULL OF ONESELFSUPERIOROVERBEARINGPOMPOUSBUMPTIOUSPRESUMPTUOUSIMPERIOUSOVERWEENINGPROUDIMMODESTHIGH AND MIGHTYTOO BIG FOR ONE'S BRITCHESTOO BIG FOR ONE'S BOOTSBIGHEADEDPUFFED-UP
Antonymy

YIELDPOLITE

Kind Of

PROUD

Old Chinese Criteria

[ABSOLUTE/GRADED]

[BEHAVIOUR/DISPOSITION]

[HABITUAL/OCCASIONAL]

[IMPERSONAL/PERSONAL]

1. The most current general word for arrogance of attitude and in behaviour is probably jiāo 驕 (ant.* bēi 卑 "humble in attitude") which refers to an overbearing exaggerated self-confidence and does not essentially involve a negative attitude towards others.

[DISPOSITION], [GENERAL], [IMPERSONAL]

2. Ào 傲 (ant. qiān 謙 "unassuming") is primarily an arrogant attitude towards others and a failure to recognise the dignity of others in action. (NB: Only in post-Buddhist times does the word come to designate justified pride.)

[DISPOSITION], [GRADED], [IMPERSONAL]

3. Jù 倨 (ant. gōng 恭 "show proper politeness") is primarily an informal physical pose and then by extension nonchalance and a failure to show proper respect for others.

[BEHAVIOUR], [HABITUAL], [HIGH-DEGREE], [IMPERSONAL]

4. Màn 慢 (ant. jìng 敬 "show proper respect") refers to arrogance in action as a failure to show proper diligence in polite behaviour towards someone.

[BEHAVIOUR], [HABITUAL!], [PERSONAL]

5. Jiàn 僭 may perhaps be construed as arrogance as a result of a failure to recognise boundaries and limits to what is permissible for one, and where another person's responsibilities begin. But the word is marginal in the group. See ARROGATE.

[BEHAVIOUR], [OCCASIONAL], [PERSONAL]

Modern Chinese Criteria

傲慢 / 高傲

驕傲

倨傲

驕矜

矜誇

虛驕

滿

傲慢

驕慢

高慢

神氣

高傲

傲物

傲視

傲睨

傲岸

自負

自居

自誇

自用

自是

托大

自大

拿大

孤高

不自量

不自量力

翹尾巴 (coll) refers to snobbish self-importance.

自高自大

自以為是

驕傲自滿

居功自傲

妄自尊大

好為人師

夜郎自大

不可一世

自命不凡

惟我獨尊

旁若無人

目中無人

眼高於頂

目無餘子

目無下塵

目空一切

睥睨一切

鋒芒畢露

盛氣凌人

呼么喝六 hū yāo

老氣橫秋 refers to arrogant presumption of high status.

倚老賣老

恃才傲物

有恃無恐

大言不慚

出言不遜

得意忘形

忘乎所以

顧盼自雄

耀武揚威

趾高氣揚

神氣活現

頤指氣使

高視闊步

大模大樣

煞有介事

老子天下第一

老虎屁股摸不得

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis, based on CL. 18.11.2003. CH/

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 124

ARROGANTIA, SUPERBIA

504. C. Fronto: Superbia a superhabendo: arrogantia etiam in pauperem cadit.

504. Inter Superbiam et arrogantiam. Arrogantia est inanis gloria de eo quod quisque est. Superbia vero, supergrediens elatio mentis de eo quod non est. Superbiae autem gemina est differentia: Una quae spirituales ac summos viros per virtutum jactantiam dejicit, altera quae carnales erga seniorum imperium inobedientes reddit. Dicta autem superbia, quia super vult quam quod est.

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 332

HUANG XIAODONG 2003 “荀子”單音節形容詞同義關係研究 172

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

ARROGANTIA

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 2.332

EIGENDUENKEL

THEOPHRASTUS 1960 Theophrast, Charaktere no. 24

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 1692

驕,傲

1. WL claims that jia1o 驕 is psychological and a4o 傲 is a matter of actions. THE MANY COUNTEREXAMPLES TO THIS NEED TO BE EXAMINED.

WU SANXING 2008 中國文化背景八千詞 Zhongguo wenhua beijing ba qian ci 219ff

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 240

CAI SHAOWEI 2010 跟我學同義詞 18

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 2.3:3

HAUT.HAUTAIN; SUFFISANT.IMPORTANT.ARROGANT

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 231

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 48A

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vi : 51
  • vtoN : 23
  • VPi : 15
  • vadN : 11
  • nab : 9
  • VPtoN : 5
  • NPab : 4
  • vtoN : 1
  • vtoNab : 1
  • vt+prep+N : 1
  • vadV : 1
  • n : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 25
  • 韓非子 : 18
  • 荀子 : 14
  • 論語 : 11
  • 管子 : 10
  • 呂氏春秋 : 6
  • 禮記 : 5
  • 說苑 : 4
  • 孝經 : 4
  • 淮南子 : 3
  • 莊子 : 2
  • 賢愚經 : 2
  • 百喻經 : 2
  • 老子 : 2
  • 法言 : 2
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 2
  • 文子 : 2
  • 法句經 : 2
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 孫子 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • 戰國策 : 1
  • 法集要頌經 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 祖堂集 : 1

Words

   jiāo OC: krew MC: kiɛu 44 Attributions

The most current general word for arrogance of attitude and in behaviour is probably jiāo 驕 (ant.* bēi 卑 "humble in attitude") which refers to an overbearing exaggerated self-confidence and does not essentially involve a negative attitude towards others. [DISPOSITION], [GENERAL], [IMPERSONAL]

  • vt(+N)be arrogant because the contextually determinate N
  • nabpsycharrogance
  • vadNarrogant and over-confident 驕君 "arrogant ruler"
  • viactbe overconfident, overbearing; haughty, arrogant, self-important
  • viactbe arrogant in behaviour, be overconfident
  • vichangebecome arrogant
  • vt+prep+Ntreat arrogantly 嚴於, fail to show proper respect
  • vt+V[0]be arrogantly proud of V-ing
  • vtoNbehave arrogantly towards
  • vtoNcausativecause to be arrogant and over-confident
  • vtoNpsychtake pride in (oneself); be arrogant [the reflexive pronoun is hard to explain, for the meaning of this phrase is NOT "arrogant towards oneself". It is as if we have a medial VP. Not current in MSC or in TPGJ.]
  • vtoNputativeconsider as arrogant (or: declare to be arrogant?)
  • vtoNfigurativebe arrogant towards> proudly look down upon
傲 / 傲敖   ào OC: ŋoows MC: ŋɑu  OC:  MC:  22 Attributions

Ào 傲 (ant. qiān 謙 "unassuming") is primarily an arrogant attitude towards others and a failure to recognise the dignity of others in action. (NB: Only in post-Buddhist times does the word come to designate justified pride.) [DISPOSITION], [GRADED], [IMPERSONAL] Ào 傲 (ant. qiān 謙 "unassuming") is primarily an arrogant attitude towards others and a failure to recognise the dignity of others in action. (NB: Only in post-Buddhist times does the word come to designate justified pride.) [DISPOSITION], [GRADED], [IMPERSONAL]

  • viactmake a show of arrogance; be arrogant to others in attitude and action
  • vtoNattitudinaltreat with arrogant disrespect; be arrogant towards be non-chalant vis-a-vis (e.g. punishments)
  • vibe proud (as one should be or naturally might be of great achievements)
  • vadNarrogant
  • nabpsycharrogance
倨 / 踞   jù OC: kas MC: ki̯ɤ jù OC: kas MC: ki̯ɤ 9 Attributions

Jù 倨 (ant. gōng 恭 "show proper politeness") is primarily an informal physical pose and then by extension nonchalance and a failure to show proper respect for others. [BEHAVIOUR], [HABITUAL], [HIGH-DEGREE], [IMPERSONAL] Jù 倨 (ant. gōng 恭 "show proper politeness") is primarily an informal physical pose and then by extension nonchalance and a failure to show proper respect for others. [BEHAVIOUR], [HABITUAL], [HIGH-DEGREE], [IMPERSONAL]

  • vibe arrogantly nonchalant in behaviour, be impolitely informal
  • vadNarrogant; impolitely informal
   màn OC: mroons MC: mɣan 8 Attributions

Màn 慢 (ant. jìng 敬 "show proper respect") refers to arrogance in action as a failure to show proper diligence in polite behaviour towards someone. [BEHAVIOUR], [HABITUAL!], [PERSONAL]

  • nabactarrogance in behaviour;
  • nabpsychconceit, superciliousness
  • vadNarrogant
  • vt+prep+Nbehave arrogantly towards
  • vtoNshow arrogant disrespect for someone, fail to pay proper polite attention to someone.
   kàng OC: khaaŋs MC: khɑŋ 6 Attributions
  • nabpsychoffensively arrogant disposition
  • vadNarrogant
  • vadVarrogantly, with provocative arrogance
  • viactbe arrogant and overbearing
  • vifigurativeinsensitive, blunt
   tài OC: thaads MC: thɑi 5 Attributions
  • narrogance; arrogant begaviour
  • viactbe presumptuous; overbearing
  • viactbe proud
不禮   bù lǐ OC: pɯʔ riiʔ MC: pi̯ut lei 5 Attributions
  • VPiactbe impolite; fail to show proper politeness according to ritual
  • VPtoNbe impolite to
   ào OC: ŋoows MC: ŋɑu 2 Attributions
  • viactbe recklessly unrestrained and arrogant
  • vtoNabtake an arrogant attutude towards Nab
倨傲   jù ào OC: kas ŋoows MC: ki̯ɤ ŋɑu 2 Attributions
  • VPiactshow every kind of arrogance
憍慢   jiāo màn OC: krew mroons MC: kiɛu mɣan 2 Attributions
  • VPibe arrogant
我慢   wǒ màn OC: ŋaalʔ mroons MC: ŋɑ mɣan 2 Attributions
  • NPabactBUDDH: arrogant and improper behaviour
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: self-pride, egotism, arrogance; skr. abhimāna; ātma-mada
   kàng OC: khaaŋs MC: khɑŋ 1 Attribution
  • nabpsycharrogance
  • viacthaughty, overbearing
  • vtoNshow arrogance towards
   jiàn OC: skɯɯms MC: tsem 1 Attribution

Jiàn 僭 may perhaps be construed as arrogance as a result of a failure to recognise boundaries and limits to what is permissible for one, and where another person's responsibilities begin. But the word is marginal in the group. [BEHAVIOUR], [OCCASIONAL], [PERSONAL]

  • vtoNattitudinaltreat without proper restraint and respect for the rules of propriety ZUO 僭嫚於鬼神
   màn OC: mroons MC: mɣan 1 Attribution
  • vibe insolent
倨固   jù gù OC: kas kaas MC: ki̯ɤ kuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • VPibe arrogant and headstrong
偃蹇   yǎn jiǎn OC: qanʔ kranʔ MC: ʔi̯ɐn kiɛn 1 Attribution
  • VPibe arrogant
夷固   yí gù OC: li kaas MC: ji kuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • VPibe arrogantly stubborn
恃力   shì lì OC: ɡljɯʔ ɡ-rɯɡ MC: dʑɨ lɨk 1 Attribution
  • VPiactbehave in a self-assertive arrogant manner
暴慢   bào màn OC: boowɡs mroons MC: bɑu mɣan 1 Attribution
  • NPabviolent arrogance
自高   zì gāo OC: sblids koow MC: dzi kɑu 1 Attribution
  • VPibe arrogant
驁愎   ào bì OC: ŋoows brɯɡ MC: ŋɑu bɨk 1 Attribution
  • VPibe arrogantly insensitive
驕佚   jiāo yì OC: krew liɡ MC: kiɛu jit 1 Attribution
  • VPiresultativebe arrogant so as to become remiss
驕榮   jiāo róng OC: krew ɢʷeŋ MC: kiɛu ɦɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNcausativecause to become arrogant and self-glorifying
驕矜   jiāo jīn OC: krew klɯŋ MC: kiɛu kɨŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNintensitivebe very haughty towards
驕溢   jiāo yì MC: kjew yit OC: krew k-liɡ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNactbehave arrogantly towards N
驕暴   jiāo bào  MC: kjew bawH  OC: krew boowɡs  1 Attribution
  • VPibe recklessly arrogant
憍泄   jiāo xiè MC: kjew sjet OC: krew sled 1 Attribution
  • NPab= jiao1xie4 驕媟: arrogance
   jiāo OC: krew MC: kiɛu 0 Attributions
  • vibe arrogant; haughty
怠嫚   dài màn OC: lɯɯʔ mroons MC: dəi mɣan 0 Attributions
  • VPiactbe remiss and arrogant
自驕   zì jiāo OC: sblids krew MC: dzi kiɛu 0 Attributions
    貢高   gòng gāo OC: kooŋs koow MC: kuŋ kɑu 0 Attributions
    • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: pride, arrogance
    驕盈   jiāo yíng OC: krew leŋ MC: kiɛu jiɛŋ 0 Attributions
    • VPiactact arrogantly and be full of oneself
    貢高我慢   gòng gāo wǒ màn OC: kooŋs koow ŋaalʔ mroons MC: kuŋ kɑu ŋɑ mɣan 0 Attributions
    • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: arrogance and self-pride (devaluating the achievements of others and exaggerating one's own achievements; compare gònggāo zìdà 貢高自大 in LOTUS(B): 109á8); see also zēngshàng màn 增上慢)

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: