DIRTY  骯髒

CONTAIN DUST OR HAVE DUST, TYPICALLY on the SURFACE.
DEFILESOILSTAINMUDDYBLACKENMESS UPMARKSPATTERBESPATTERSMUDGESMEARSPLATTERSULLYPOLLUTEFOULDEFILELITERARY BEFOULBESMIRCHBEGRIMESOILEDGRIMYGRUBBYFILTHYMUCKYSTAINEDUNWASHEDGREASYSMEAREDSMEARYSPOTTEDSMUDGEDCLOUDYMUDDYDUSTYSOOTYUNCLEANSULLIEDIMPURETARNISHEDPOLLUTEDCONTAMINATEDDEFILEDFOULUNHYGIENICUNSANITARYINFORMAL CRUDDYYUCKYICKYGROTTYGRUNGYLITERARY BEFOULEDBESMIRCHEDBEGRIMED
Antonymy

PURECLEAN

Kind Of

CONTAIN

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current general word for uncleanness and dirt, both concrete and abstract, is wū 污 / 汙 (ant. jié 潔 "clean").

2. Zhuó 濁 (ant qīng 清 "clear and pure") typically refers to physical states of dirtiness, but there are occasional usages like zhuó lì 濁吏 "morally impure official".

3. Huì 穢 can refer to physical dirt, but the word is also used abstractly to refer to what is vulgar and morally distasteful.

4. Hún 混 refers to an admixture of dirt rather than to the presence of dirt on some surface.

5. Gòu 垢 refers to the presence of physical dirt on some surface.

Modern Chinese Criteria

骯髒

齷齪

邋遢

鏖糟 refers vividly to extreme filth.

埋汰

污濁

污穢

污漫

惡濁

渾濁

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 15.88

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

BESMIRCHED

delibutus is the general word referring to something that is besmeared with an oily substgance.

unctus refers to something being anointed with a fragrant oily substance or ointment.

oblitus is the general word for being besmeared with any impure substance.

DEFILE

contaminare refers to defilement as the pernicious ruining of what is sound and useful.

inquinare focusses on the sallying or marring of what is inherently beautiful and attractive.

polluere is the desecration of what is spiritually pure or even holy.

HUANG XIAODONG 2003 “荀子”單音節形容詞同義關係研究 199

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

FOEDUS

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik CAUS: 68

HSU 2010 Pulse Diagnosis in Early Chinese Medicine 401

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vi : 30
  • nab : 10
  • vadN : 9
  • vtoN : 8
  • VPadN : 6
  • NPab : 6
  • nm : 3
  • VPi : 2
  • v[adN] : 2
  • nab.post-V{NUM} : 2
  • nadN : 2
  • VPtoN : 2
  • nab : 1
  • vt+prep+N : 1
  • vadV : 1
  • NPm : 1

Attributions by text

  • 楚辭 : 16
  • 論衡 : 8
  • 韓非子 : 8
  • 賢愚經 : 7
  • 祖堂集 : 6
  • 管子 : 4
  • 百喻經 : 4
  • 荀子 : 3
  • 禮記 : 3
  • 臨濟錄 : 3
  • 孟子 : 3
  • 淮南子 : 3
  • 文子 : 3
  • 法句經 : 3
  • 說苑 : 2
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 2
  • 墨子 : 1
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
  • 春秋左傳 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 老子 : 1
  • 法言 : 1
  • 法集要頌經 : 1

Words

   zhuó OC: rdooɡ MC: ɖɣɔk 24 Attributions

Zhuó 濁 (ant. qīng 清 "clear and pure") typically refers to physical states of dirtiness, but there are occasional usages like zhuó lì 濁吏 "morally impure official".

  • nabfigurative(mental) defilement, contamination
  • nabfigurative(in music) muddiness of tone
  • vadNdirty; murky; of wine: unstrained
  • vadNfigurative(in music or literature) muddy, impure; morally impure, defiled 濁世
  • vimixed with impurities and sediment; impure
  • vifigurativebe (musically or morally) impure or defiled; be (metaphysically) muddied (i.e. soiled by contact with the world)
  • vtoNrelationalbe impure with respect to (behaviour etc)
  • v[adN]what is dirty; what is murky; what is impure
  • viderivedcontaminated
   gòu OC: kooʔ MC: ku 11 Attributions

Gòu 垢 refers to the presence of physical dirt on some surface.

  • nab.post-V{NUM}buddhistBUDDH: defilement (see also qīgòu 七垢, the seven kinds of defilements: desire, false views, doubt, pride, arrogance, torpor, and stinginess; there is also a set of three defilements 三垢 (or sāndú 三毒 ) which refers to desire, hate, and ignorance; see also the sānhuò 三惑 of the Tiāntaí School); skr. mala SOOTHILL 299: " Dust, impurity, dregs; moral impurity; mental impurity. Whatever misleads or deludes the mind; illusion; defilement; the six forms are vexation, malevolence, hatred, flattery, wild talk, pride; the seven are desire, false views, doubt, presumption, arrogance, inertia, and meanness."
  • nabfeaturefigurative: filthiness; impurities
  • nadNdirty
  • vibe dirty
   wū OC: qʷlaa MC: ʔuo̝ 8 Attributions

The current general word for uncleanness and dirt, both concrete and abstract, is wū 污/汙 (ant. jié 潔 "clean").

  • nabstativefilth; dirtiness
  • vadNstagnant (water, pond); murky, dirty, infamous
  • vadVimproperly, dirtily
  • vibe soiled; be dirty
  • vtoNcausativemake dirty, soil
  • vtoNcausativebe made dirty
   hùn OC: ɢuuns MC: ɦuo̝n 6 Attributions
  • vimurky and dirty (CC); be less than spotless
   lòu OC: roos MC: lu 5 Attributions
  • nabfigurativedefilement; impurities> impure biases of attitude
  • vadNfigurativedefiled
   huì OC: qʷads MC: ʔi̯ɐi 5 Attributions

Huì 穢 can refer to physical dirt, but the word is also used abstractly to refer to what is vulgar and morally distasteful.

  • nmdirt, filth
  • nmfigurativedirt; (also fig: wicked elements)
  • vadNfigurativedirty, defiled
  • vibe filthy, sordid
  • vichangebecome defiled
  • vtoNcausativecause to be dirty; inflict stain on
   bù OC: pɯʔ MC: pi̯ut 4 Attributions
  • NPabconceptBUDDH: uncleanness
  • NPabfigurativefilth
  • VPadNregarding the things of the world as impure 不淨觀
   wù OC: qʷlaas MC: ʔuo̝ 2 Attributions
  • nadNdirty
  • nmdirt
  • vtoNcausativecause to be dirty> sully
   měi OC: muulʔ MC: muo̝i 2 Attributions
  • vt+prep+Ncausativeto be defiled (by somebody or something)
  • vtoNcausativeto make (somebody) dirty; to defile (somebody)
   ní OC: niil MC: nei 1 Attribution
  • nmdirt
混 / 渾   hùn OC: ɡuunʔ MC: ɦuo̝n hùn OC: ɡuunʔ MC: ɦuo̝n 1 Attribution

Hùn 混 refers to an admixture of dirt rather than to the presence of dirt on some surface. Hùn 混 refers to an admixture of dirt rather than to the presence of dirt on some surface.

  • vimurky, stagnant and dirty; untransparent
  • vtoNcausativecause to be dirty > taint, defile
   nì OC: nees MC: nei 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcausativecause to be full of mud; make dirty
   dú OC: ɡ-looɡ MC: duk 1 Attribution
  • nabactdisgraceful behaviour, dishonourable behaviour
  • vtoNcausativemake dirty, defile; dishonour
垢膩   gòu nì OC: kooʔ nis MC: ku ɳi 1 Attribution
  • VPadNfilthy
垢闇   gòu àn OC: kooʔ qɯɯms MC: ku ʔəm 1 Attribution
  • NPabmetaphysicaldefilements
惡沱   è tuó OC: qaaɡ laal MC: ʔɑk dɑ 1 Attribution
  • NPabfeaturedefilement; dirtiness
有漏   yǒu lòu OC: ɢʷɯʔ roos MC: ɦɨu lu 1 Attribution
  • VPadNbuddhistBUDDH: have outflow > tainted, deluded, impure, contaminated, defiled (i.e. pertaining to the mondane world, ant. of wúlòu 無漏); skr. āsrava
染汙   rǎn yú OC: njomʔ ɢʷra MC: ȵiɛm ɦi̯o 1 Attribution
  • NPabfeaturedefilement
染污   rǎn wū OC: njomʔ qʷlaa MC: ȵiɛm ʔuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNcausativecause oneself to be defiled> get defiled
污染   wū rǎn OC: qʷlaa njomʔ MC: ʔuo̝ ȵiɛm 1 Attribution
  • VPibuddhistBUDDH: be dirty > be defiled, be impure (e.g. defiled by the Five Desires 五欲, Six Dusts 六塵, afflictions 煩惱, etc.)
溷濁   hùn zhuó OC: ɢuuns rdooɡ MC: ɦuo̝n ɖɣɔk 1 Attribution
  • NPabactdirty tricks; dirty practices
  • VPifigurativebe characterised by dirty practices
瑕穢   xiá huì OC: ɡraa qʷads MC: ɦɣɛ ʔi̯ɐi 1 Attribution
  • NPmfigurativedefilements
穢污   huì wū OC: qʷads qʷlaa MC: ʔi̯ɐi ʔuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNcausativecause to be dirty > make dirty, conteminate
膿漏   nóng lòu OC: nuuŋ roos MC: nuo̝ŋ lu 1 Attribution
  • VPadNpuss-dripping; defiled by impurities;
臭穢   chòu huì OC: khjus qʷads MC: tɕhɨu ʔi̯ɐi 1 Attribution
  • VPadNfigurativedefiled, dirty
洿   wū MC: 'u OC: qʷlaa 1 Attribution
  • nabfeaturefigurative: moral dirtiness
雜汙   zá wù MC: dzop 'uH OC: sɡuub qʷlaas 1 Attribution
  • VPifigurativemurky, turbid, impure
   zì MC: dzjeH OC: sɡleɡs 1 Attribution
  • vtoNsoak in N, stain oneself by N
    OC:  MC:  0 Attributions
  • nmdirt (CC)
   gǔ OC: kluud MC: kuot 0 Attributions
  • vifigurativebe dirty; be sordid
   zī OC: tsɯ MC: tsɨ 0 Attributions
  • vichangebecome dirty (ZUO)
   làn OC: ɡ-raans MC: lɑn 0 Attributions
  • vtoNcausativemake dirty, soil

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: