DUST  塵土

INTENSELY DRY SOIL in INTENSELY SMALL PIECES which CAN BE BLOWN at AND MOVED by WIND.
DIRTGRIMEFILTHSMUTSOOTFINE POWDER
Kind Of

SOIL

Old Chinese Criteria

1. Chén 塵 is the general word for dry dust.

2. Āi 埃 refers primarily to to light dry quality of dust, and then generally dust, but the word is rarely used by itself.

3. Gòu 垢 is the general word for dust when it regarded as dirty. See DIRT

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

GEOGRAPHY 19. 塵埃。

塵,通稱。

埃,飛揚的塵土,多與與他詞連用。

堁,楚方言詞。

堨,漢代詞。

Modern Chinese Criteria

灰塵

塵土

塵埃

纖塵

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 1.213

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • nm : 24
  • NPm : 16
  • NP : 5
  • NPab : 4
  • nab : 3
  • nmadN : 2
  • NPm : 1
  • vi : 1
  • vtoN : 1
  • ncc : 1
  • n : 1
  • VPtoN : 1

Attributions by text

  • 莊子 : 12
  • 賢愚經 : 6
  • 祖堂集 : 6
  • 論衡 : 5
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 4
  • 春秋左傳 : 4
  • 韓非子 : 3
  • 韓詩外傳 : 3
  • 六祖壇經 : 3
  • 文子 : 3
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 2
  • 臨濟錄 : 2
  • 禮記 : 1
  • 百喻經 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 史記 : 1
  • 法集要頌經 : 1
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1

Words

   chén OC: din MC: ɖin 21 Attributions

Chén 塵 is the general word for dry dust.

  • nabfigurativedust > defilement, impurity
  • ncc(particle of) dust (can be counted!)
  • nmdust; sand; (also abstractly in a transferred sense: defilement)
  • nmadNmade of dust/dirt
  • nmadNfigurativedust-like > trivial
  • vibe dusty
  • vtoNcausativecause (oneself) to be dirty
塵垢   chén gòu OC: din kooʔ MC: ɖin ku 11 Attributions
  • NPfigurativedefilements
  • NPmdust and dirt (often: of this world) 塵垢之外
  • VPtoNbesmirch
   gòu OC: kooʔ MC: ku 9 Attributions

Gòu 垢 is the general word for dust when it regarded as dirty. See DIRT

  • nab.post-Npsychdefilement of N
  • nmdirt, dust
  • nmfigurativedefilement
塵埃   chén āi OC: din qɯɯ MC: ɖin ʔəi 6 Attributions
  • NPmdust and dirt (of all kinds)
  • VPi0there is dust
  • NPmthe dust of this dirty world
六塵   liù chén OC: ɡ-ruɡ din MC: luk ɖin 4 Attributions
  • NPbuddhistDELETE BUDDH: the six regions > the six sense objects (色 form, 聲, sound, 香 smell, 味 flavour, 觸 touch), which come in contact with the six senses (liùgēn 六根) and produce the six consciousnesses (liùshí 六識); this contact defiles the mind therefore the sense objects are also referred to as the Six Dusts 六塵; sometimes also referred to as the Six Thieves 六賊 since they snatch away all good dharmas; sometimes also referred as the wàichén 外塵 'External pollutions' since - although they defile the mind - they cannot infiltrate the pure mind (zhēnxīn 真心)
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: the six sense objects (色 form, 聲, sound, 香 smell, 味 flavour, 觸 touch), which come in contact with the six senses (liùgēn 六根) and produce the six consciousnesses (liùshí 六識); this contact defiles the mind therefore the sense objects are also referred to as the Six Dusts 六塵; sometimes also referred to as the Six Thieves 六賊 since they snatch away all good dharmas; sometimes also referred as the wàichén 外塵 'External pollutions' since - although they defile the mind - they cannot infiltrate the pure mind (zhēnxīn 真心) the six kinds of dust; Six Dusts > the six sense objects (which - through contact with the six senses - defile the pure mind; see the more current 六境)
   bèn OC: bɯɯns MC: buo̝n 2 Attributions
  • nmdust
塵坌   chén bèn OC: din bɯɯns MC: ɖin buo̝n 2 Attributions
  • NPmdust (as metaphor for wordly conditions)
糞壤   fèn rǎng OC: puns njaŋʔ MC: pi̯un ȵi̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentialall sorts of dust and dirt
   āi OC: qɯɯ MC: ʔəi 1 Attribution

Āi 埃 refers primarily to to light dry quality of dust, and then generally dust, but the word is rarely used by itself.

  • nearly: light dust; later generally: dust
塵土   chén tǔ OC: din kh-laaʔ MC: ɖin thuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • NPmdust; dirt
泥土   ní tǔ MC: nej thuX OC: niil kh-laaʔ 1 Attribution
  • NPmdust
垢濁   gòu zhuó OC: kooʔ rdooɡ MC: ku ɖɣɔk 0 Attributions
  • NPfigurativeimpurities
  • NPmdust and dirt

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: