Taxonomy of meanings for 坐:

  • 坐 zuò (OC: sɡoolʔ MC: dzuɑ) 徂果切 上 廣韻:【釋名曰坐挫也骨節挫屈也徂果切二 】
    • KNEEL
      • vi-Vkneel/sit and V
      • vikneel on the floor, politely and decently, with one's back on one's heels
      • viactto kneel in a certain place, often used with 於 (one might feel this is a transitive usage with a local object rather than a localising complement)
      • vtoNkneel on
      • vtoNcausativecause to kneel>cause to sit the traditional Chinese way
      • nabkneeling
      • vikneel down
      • generalised>SIT
        • vadVwhile sitting and doing nothing; while sitting, during sitting (in meditation)
        • vi[0]imperativesit (i.e. kneel!) down!
        • vipost-Han: sit: 踞床而坐CHECK?????
        • viactsit (in mediation)
        • vt(oN)sit in the contextually determinate seat/place
        • vt+prep+Nsit in place N
        • vtoNcausativeto seat someone, cause to sit (facing a certain direction etc)
        • vtoNcausativecause oneself to sit (in a certain direction etc), seat oneself
        • vtoNinchoativesit down on
        • v[adN]nonreferentialsomeone sitting/kneeling
        • viact inchoativesit down
      • generalised>DWELL
        • vtoNsit at a place > to live in/at; dwell in/at (this is a meaning common in vernacular texts of the Tang)
        • sitting down and thus effortlessly>EASY
          • vadVsitting down> effortlessly; without one having to do anything, without one doing anything
    • sit in judgement>JUDGE
      • vtoNpassivebe condemned See PUNISH
    • specifically>MEDITATE
      • viactsit in meditation
  • 坐 zuò (OC: sɡools MC: dzuɑ) 徂卧切 去 廣韻:【被罪又藏果切
    • SEAT
      • nseat on the floor, marked by a mattress or carpet (in the Chan BUDDH. context referring to the seat on an elevated platfrom in the Dharma-hall, used by the master for lectures )
      • vtoNcausativeassign a seat to; seat somebody
      • n(post-N)seat of honour of the contextually determinate N
    • CONVICT
      • vtoNmiddle voicebe held responsible for the crime of (a person); be held guilty (of a crime)
    • grammaticalised>BECAUSE