PEACEFUL  平安

DELIGHTFUL BECAUSE ORDERLY AND LACKING CHAOS.
CALMTRANQUILCALMRESTFULQUIETSTILLRELAXINGSOOTHINGUNDISTURBEDUNTROUBLEDPRIVATESECLUDED
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The dominant general word for peacefulness is ān 安 (wēi 危 "in imminent danger"), but in addition the word also often has considerable philosophical depth and commonly refers to a deep state of unruffled inner serenity in harmony with the outer world.

2. Píng 平 (ant. luàn 亂 "chaos") is prototypically an unruffled smooth surface, and the word refers to a state of harmonious tranquility, particularly in a community of people.

3. Níng 寧 (ant. yáng 殃 "a totally disastrous state") refers to a state of affairs, primarily in a community of people, where disturbances have ceased.

4. Yì 佚 / 逸 (ant. láo 勞 "engaged in exhausting effort") refers to restful peace of mind, typically after effort.

5. Tián 恬 and dàn 淡 (all ant. dòng dàng 動蕩 "be all over the place) refer to serenity in an individual as cultivated, notoriously, by the Taoists.

6. Jìng 靜 (ant. zào 躁 "flurried), is a state of mind in which one refuses to be rushed into any action and is fully at ease.

7. Tài 泰 (all ant. jí 急 "be off balance or in urgent need of something, be in a critical state") and yí 夷 (ant. jīng 驚 "be upset") refers to relaxation, the state of being détendu.

Modern Chinese Criteria

安靜, 平靜, 寧靜

安定, 穩定, 穩固

安定 is the most general word referring to peacefulness of all kinds.

沉靜 refers primarily to peacefulness of the mind, tranquiliy.

寂靜 refers to stillness or noiselessness of surroundings.

平安

安堵

寧靖

寧靜 refers in a literary way to peacefulness of surroundings or feelings.

肅靜 refers to solemn silence.

平靜 refers to serenity of facial expression, mood, or surroundings and is often reduplicated 平平靜靜.

清淨 refers to secluded elevated peacefulness of mood an of spirit, as well as of perceived scenery.

穩定 focusses on the unperturbe safety of what is peaceful.

安生

平靜

安靜

安寧 refers to untroubled peacefulness of the mind.

安謐

安瀾

消停

安樂

康樂

坦然

風平浪靜 refers to placidness of a scenery or situation.

民康物阜

物阜民豐

安居樂業

靜悄悄 describes something as going on in a peaceful manner, often adverbially.

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

  • A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages ( BUCK 1988) p. 12.19

  • De differentiis ( DIFFERENTIAE I) p. 447

    SERENUS, TRANQUILLUS

    536. Sic Virg., Georg. I: Coelo properanda sereno; et Hiemes optate serenas; et alibi: Unde serenas Ventus agat nubes; et saepe alias.

    -- Tranquillum. Tranquilla per alta. II Aeneid.

    ]

    536. Inter Serenum et tranquillum. Serenum enim ad coelum referri potest, ad mare non potest. Serenum [col. 64B] enim coelum dicimus, tranquillum mare.

  • Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien ( DOEDERLEIN 1840) p.

    PEACE

    otium refers to quiet times in general as a kind of peace that is free even of problems.

    pax is the general word for peace.

    concordia refers to peace with special reference to harmonious internal relations.

    CALM

    quies refers to absolute rest as opposed to any kind of activity, and this word refers to rest in itself.

    requies refers to rest after activity and exertion.

    tranquillitas refers to quietness and calmness in action as opposed to passionate or mindless activity.

  • 韓非子同義詞研究 ( HANFEI TONGYI 2004) p. 346

  • Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum ( LANGIUS 1631) p.

    QUIES

    TRANQUILLITAS ANIMI

  • Lateinische Synonymik ( MENGE) p. 187

  • “孟子”同義詞研究 ( MENGZI TONGYI 2002) p. 231

  • “孟子”同義詞研究 ( MENGZI TONGYI 2002) p. 50

  • Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie ( RITTER 1971-2007) p. 1.1117

    FRIEDE, EWIGER

  • Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie ( RITTER 1971-2007) p. 9.96

    SEELENRUHE

  • Grundbegriffe der altchinesischen Philosophie ( UNGER 2000) p. 1

  • 王力古漢語字典 ( WANG LI 2000) p. 595

    淡,澹

    1. The complete interchangeability of these two characters is predominantly when they refer to peacefulness and serenity. Tastelessness is not written da4n 澹 in the pre-Buddhist texts I have examined.

  • Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary ( TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996) p. 4

  • 現代漢語同義詞詞典 ( LIU SHUXIN 1987) p. 3

  • 跟我學同義詞 ( CAI SHAOWEI 2010) p. 3

  • Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge ( PILLON 1850) p. no.247

  • 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 ( HONG CHENGYU 2009) p. 211

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vi : 84
  • vtoN : 75
  • VPi : 27
  • nab : 22
  • vi0 : 14
  • NPab : 14
  • vadV : 10
  • vi-P : 9
  • vtpost-.VtoN : 8
  • vi : 6
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2 : 5
  • n : 4
  • VPtoN : 3
  • VPpostadV : 2
  • vadN : 2
  • VPi0 : 1
  • vi.red : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 57
  • 韓非子 : 52
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 13
  • 說苑 : 13
  • 莊子 : 12
  • 淮南子 : 12
  • 史記 : 12
  • 論語 : 11
  • 祖堂集 : 9
  • 禮記 : 7
  • 呂氏春秋 : 7
  • 論衡 : 6
  • 毛詩 : 6
  • 管子 : 5
  • 賢愚經 : 5
  • 孟子 : 5
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 5
  • 戰國策 : 4
  • 孝經 : 4
  • 百喻經 : 4
  • 楚辭 : 4
  • 文子 : 4
  • 老子 : 3
  • 韓詩外傳 : 3
  • 六祖壇經 : 3
  • 法句經 : 3
  • 荀子 : 2
  • 山海經 : 2
  • 五行 : 2
  • 尚書 : 2
  • 墨子 : 1
  • 春秋繁露 : 1
  • 孫子 : 1
  • 鹽鐵論 : 1
  • 臨濟錄 : 1
  • 晏子春秋 : 1
  • 黃帝內經 : 1
  • 法言 : 1
  • 法集要頌經 : 1
  • 忠經 : 1

Words

   ān OC: qaan MC: ʔɑn 73 Attributions

The dominant general word for peacefulness is ān 安 (wēi 危 "in imminent danger"), but in addition the word also often has considerable philosophical depth and commonly refers to a deep state of unruffled inner serenity in harmony with the outer world.

  • nabstativepeace of mind, security;
  • vadVpeacefully and comfortably 安坐
  • vibe at peace and secure, be at ease; find peace; be poised
  • vi0there is peace
  • vtoNcausativecause to be peaceful/tranquil > pacify, put to rest, keep at rest 安心 pacify the mind, make the mind tranquil
  • vtoNcausativecause (oneself) to be perfectly at ease
  • vtoNcausativekeep oneself at rest
  • vtoNcausativekeep politically secure, cause to be secure; cause to be in peace
  • vtoNputativeregard as conducive to peace; feel at ease with, feel comfortable with; find one's peace in; be content with; find comfort in (women and feasting)
  • vibe still
  • vtoNhave a peaceful and comfortable time in (a bureaucratic position)
   píng OC: breŋ MC: bɣaŋ 34 Attributions

Píng 平 (ant. luàn 亂 "chaos") is prototypically an unruffled smooth surface, and the word refers to a state of harmonious tranquility, particularly in a community of people.

  • nabpeace; peaceful relations
  • nabactmaking peace with others
  • vi0be tranquil and at peace together; keep the peace; make peace
  • vtoNcausativebring peace to, pacify; calm down;
  • vtpost-.VtoNcausativemake peace with
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2make peace between N1 and N2
    OC:  MC:  20 Attributions

Jìng 靜 (ant. zào 躁 "flurried), is a state of mind in which one refuses to be rushed into any action and is fully at ease.

  • nsubjectwhat is calm > constant peace and calm, tranquility
  • nabstativeinner peace; quiet resolve
  • vadVpeacefully and quietly
  • vigradedbe serene, have peace of mind, be calm 甚靜
  • vtoNcausativemake peaceful; calm (the mind)
   níng OC: neeŋ MC: neŋ 16 Attributions

Níng 寧 (ant. yáng 殃 "a totally disastrous state") refers to a state of affairs, primarily in a community of people, where disturbances have ceased.

  • nabsocialundisturbed peace and quiet
  • vadNserene; peaceful (SHU)
  • vadV(dwell) at peace
  • vifeel inwardly secure, feel at peace; be peaceful (as a year, or a state)
  • vi0eventpeace arises
  • vtoNfind one's peace in
  • vtoNcausative.reflex.自bring peace to
  • vtoNcausativemake peaceful, calm down; maintain peace in
恬淡 / 恬惔   tián dàn OC: b-leem ɡ-laamʔ MC: dem dɑm tián dàn OC: b-leem ɡ-laams MC: dem dɑm 14 Attributions
  • nabpsychtranquility; spiritual ease; detachment
  • viactcultivate quietude and tranquility; cultivate detachment
  • vibe peaceful; be spiritually at ease; feel detached
   tián OC: b-leem MC: dem 12 Attributions

Tián 恬 and dàn 淡 (all ant. dòng dàng 動蕩 "be all over the place) refer to serenity in an individual as cultivated, notoriously, by the Taoists.

  • nabpsychquietude
  • vadNtranquil
  • vadVpeacefully
  • vi-Pbe placid and tranquil
  • vihuman subject: have inner peace; be serene
  • vtoNfeel relaxed about, take easy
  • vtoNputativeto regard as relaxed
  • vt prep Nfeel at ease in
  • vi(abstract subject, life etc): be serene and tranquil
  • vtoNcausativemake tranquil
澹 / 淡   dàn OC: ɡ-laams MC: dɑm dàn OC: ɡ-laams MC: dɑm 12 Attributions

Tián 恬 and dàn 淡 (all ant. dòng dàng 動蕩 "be all over the place) refer to serenity in an individual as cultivated, notoriously, by the Taoists. Tián 恬 and dàn 淡 (all ant. dòng dàng 動蕩 "be all over the place) refer to serenity in an individual as cultivated, notoriously, by the Taoists.

  • vibe limpid, tranquil and serene; be unperturbed; be placid (like the sea)
  • nabconceptthe realm of peacefulness; serenity, tranquility
  • vi-Pbe serene, be tranquil
安寧   ān níng OC: qaan neeŋ MC: ʔɑn neŋ 12 Attributions
  • NPabstativepeacefulness; peace
  • VPadVpeacefully
  • VPibe in peace
  • VPi0there is peace
  • VPiinchoativebecome peaceful and safe
佚 / 軼 / 逸   yì OC: liɡ MC: jit yì OC: liɡ MC: jit yì OC: lid MC: jit 11 Attributions

Yì 佚/逸 (ant. láo 勞 "engaged in exhausting effort") refers to restful peace of mind, typically after effort. Yì 佚/逸 (ant. láo 勞 "engaged in exhausting effort") refers to restful peace of mind, typically after effort. Yì 佚/逸 (ant. láo 勞 "engaged in exhausting effort") refers to restful peace of mind, typically after effort.

  • vibe at leisure; make oneself comfortable; be at ease
  • vtoNcausativeto rest (one's limbs), cause to be comfortable
  • vtoNtake it easy with respect to; relax about, be relaxed about
  • vadVin a leisurely fashion
  • vadNliving at leisure; all free; leisurely, purely for entertainment
  • nfree and easy life-style, easy comfort; frivolity
   jìng OC: dzeŋʔ MC: dziɛŋ 9 Attributions
  • viSHI: be poised and calm
  • vtoNacquiece in; find peace in
  • vtoNcausativemake calm; give peace to; satisfy the desires of 靖國人
  • vadVpeacefully; quietly
   dìng OC: deeŋs MC: deŋ 8 Attributions
  • vichangebecome stable and peaceful
  • vibe stably governed, be stable and peaceful; be secure; be safely established; feel secure
  • vtoNbring peace to; ensure stability of
   dàn OC: ɡ-laams MC: dɑm 6 Attributions
  • vi-Pbe unperturbed
  • vi.redbe all serene
自若   zì ruò OC: sblids njaɡ MC: dzi ȵi̯ɐk 6 Attributions
  • VPibe at one's ease; pretend that nothing has happened
  • VPpostadVV at one's ease; V quietly
   shū OC: lʰa MC: ɕi̯ɤ 4 Attributions
  • vibe happily at peace
  • vtoNcausativebring peace to
  • vtoNfeel at ease in
   mò OC: maaɡ MC: mɑk 3 Attributions
  • vi-Pbe serene
  • vibe serene
不動   bù dòng OC: pɯʔ dooŋʔ MC: pi̯ut duŋ 3 Attributions
  • NPabstativeimmobile tranquility
  • VPibe unperturbed
虛靜   xū jìng OC: qhla dzeŋʔ MC: hi̯ɤ dziɛŋ 3 Attributions

xūjìng

  • NPabactpeace of mind
  • VPiactcultivate complete peacefulness
   wù OC: ŋɡluud MC: ŋuot 2 Attributions
  • vi.reddo not engage in any particular activity
  • vibe in a state of peaceful solitude
   yí OC: li MC: ji 2 Attributions

Tài 泰 (all ant. jí 急 "be off balance or in urgent need of something, be in a critical state") and yí 夷 (ant. jīng 驚 "be upset") refers to relaxation, the state of being détendu.

  • ntranquility, peace
  • vimentally: be tranquil
   jì OC: sɡlɯɯwɡ MC: dzek 2 Attributions
  • vi(of an environment) be calm, serene; (of a person) be calm, serene
   jí OC: skrib MC: ʈʂip 2 Attributions
  • viSHI: live in harmony and peace; calm things down
  • vtoNcausativecause to be peaceful, calm down
   xiáng OC: ɡruum MC: ɦɣɔŋ 2 Attributions
  • vicalm down
和平   hé píng OC: ɡool breŋ MC: ɦʷɑ bɣaŋ 2 Attributions
  • VPibe all at peace; be level-headed an unruffled
寂然   jì rán OC: sɡlɯɯwɡ njen MC: dzek ȵiɛn 2 Attributions
  • VPibe peaceful, be in a state of tranquillity
   jì OC: sɡlɯɯwɡ MC: dzek 2 Attributions

jì jìng

  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: tranquillity (sometimes used as description of nirvāṇa 涅槃); skr. śānti, pali santi
清靜   qīng jìng OC: tsheŋ dzeŋʔ MC: tshiɛŋ dziɛŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPabpsychpure serenity
  • VPicontinuousbe in pure tranquility
燕居   yàn jū OC: qeens ka MC: ʔen ki̯ɤ 2 Attributions
  • VPiactenjoy one's leisure; be at peace
平治   píng zhì MC: bjaeng drijH OC: breŋ rlils 2 Attributions
  • VPibe balanced an peaceful
  • VPtoNcausativebring peace to
   kāng OC: khlaaŋ MC: khɑŋ 1 Attribution
  • nabsocialserenity and peace on earth
  • vadNdelightfully serene
  • vibe delightfully serene
  • vtoNcausativecause to look serene; give a serene appearance to
   wèi OC: quds MC: ʔɨi 1 Attribution
  • vibe quit and calm
   tài OC: thaads MC: thɑi 1 Attribution

Tài 泰 (all ant. jí 急 "be off balance or in urgent need of something, be in a critical state") and yí 夷 (ant. jīng 驚 "be upset") refers to relaxation, the state of being détendu.

  • vibe casual and easy, be supremely confident and therefore free
退   tuì OC: thuubs MC: thuo̝i 1 Attribution
  • viactwithdraw from busy life
   zhì OC: tjid MC: tɕit 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcausativebring peace to, ensure the tranquility of
休和   xiū hé OC: qhu ɡool MC: hɨu ɦʷɑ 1 Attribution
  • VPiactmaintain a peaceful and harmonious state of affairs
安和   ān hé OC: qaan ɡool MC: ʔɑn ɦʷɑ 1 Attribution
  • NPabstativegood state, peaceful comfortable state
安立   ān lì OC: qaan ɡ-rub MC: ʔɑn lip 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNcause to be peaceful> give solid peace of mind to
宴安   yàn ān OC: qeens qaan MC: ʔen ʔɑn 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychpeaceful leisure and repose
寂定   jì dìng OC: sɡlɯɯwɡ deeŋs MC: dzek deŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychBUDDH: the keeping of one's peace of mind
平定   píng dìng OC: breŋ deeŋs MC: bɣaŋ deŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativepacify so as to bring under fixed control
泰然   tài rán OC: thaads njen MC: thɑi ȵiɛn 1 Attribution
  • VPibe tranquil
湛然   zhàn rán OC: ɡrluumʔ njen MC: ɖɣɛm ȵiɛn 1 Attribution
  • VPipeaceful; unimpeded; remain unimpaired
空閑 / 空   kōng xián OC: khooŋ ɢreen MC: khuŋ ɦɣɛn kōng OC: khooŋ MC: khuŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychunpreoccupied leisure
自安   zì ān OC: sblids qaan MC: dzi ʔɑn 1 Attribution
  • VPicausativestay still; keep at rest;
閑靜   xián jìng OC: ɢreen dzeŋʔ MC: ɦɣɛn dziɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychleisurely peace; leisure and peace
靜默   jìng mò OC: dzeŋʔ mɯɯɡ MC: dziɛŋ mək 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychinner peace
   tài OC: thaads MC: thɑi 1 Attribution
  • viLAO gloss: be peaceful
安靜   ān jìng MC: 'an dzjengX OC: qaan dzeŋʔ 1 Attribution
  • VPiactkeep one's complete calm
    OC:  MC:  0 Attributions
  • vifind repose; be peaceful; be safe; calm; be at peace
   yǒu OC: quʔ MC: ʔɨu 0 Attributions
  • vibe tranquil; be at peace
    OC:  MC:  0 Attributions
  • vadVwith a peaceful quiet mindset
  • vtoNcausativecause (oneself) to become peaceful, find peace
   huǎn OC: ɢʷaanʔ MC: ɦʷɑn 0 Attributions
  • vtoNoccasionally causative: calm down, slow down
   mì OC: mbiɡ MC: mit 0 Attributions
  • vilate, wudineizhuan be peaceful (of an environment)
豫 / 預   yù OC: las MC: ji̯ɤ yù OC: las MC: ji̯ɤ 0 Attributions
  • vifeel relaxed joy
   xián OC: ɢreen MC: ɦɣɛn 0 Attributions
  • vadNpeaceful
安以   ān yǐ OC: qaan k-lɯʔ MC: ʔɑn jɨ 0 Attributions
  • VPadVpeacefully [???SURELY 以 GOES WITH WHAT FOLLOWS!!!CH]
寧息   níng xī OC: neeŋ sqlɯɡ MC: neŋ sɨk 0 Attributions
  • NPabstativepeace and tranquility
澹泊   dàn bó OC: ɡ-laamʔ blaaɡ MC: dɑm bɑk 0 Attributions
  • NPabactthe practice of tranquility
  • VPiactcultivate inner peace
穨然   tuí rán OC: ɡ-luul njen MC: duo̝i ȵiɛn 0 Attributions
  • VPadVunperturbed; peacefully as if nothing had happened
   jū OC: ka MC: ki̯ɤ 0 Attributions
  • vibe at peace; be serene
   zhǐ OC: kljɯʔ MC: tɕɨ 0 Attributions
  • viBUDDH: be all at rest and at peace in body and mind
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • VPiactkeep one's complete calm

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: